Topic B: Foundations
We're asked to subtract and simplify the answer, and we have 8/18 minus 5/18. So subtracting fractions is very similar to adding fractions. If we have the same denominator, the denominator in the difference is going to be the same as the denominators in the two numbers that we're subtracting, so it's going to be 18. And our numerator is going to be the difference between the numerators. So in this case, it is 8 minus 5, and this will be equal to 3 over 18, which is the answer, but it's not completely simplified, because both 3 and 18 are divisible by 3. So let's divide them both by 3. So you divide 3 by 3, you divide 18 by 3, and you get 3 divided by 3 is 1. 18 divided by 3 is 6, so you get 1/6. And just to see this visually, let me draw 18 parts. Let me draw 18 parts here. So it might be a little bit of a messy drawing. I'll try the best I can. So let me draw six in this direction. So that is three right there. We have another three, so that's six parts. And then let me split this into three columns. So there we go. We have 18 parts. Now 8/18 is equal to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. That's 8/18. And now we want to subtract five of the eighteenths, so we subtract one, two, three, four, five. Now, what do we have left over? Well, we have three of the eighteenths left over, so you have that right there. You have three of the eighteenths left over. Now, if you turn three of the eighteenths into one piece, how many of those bigger pieces do you have? This is one of those big pieces. Now, where are the other ones? Well, this is another big piece right here. This is another big piece right here, another one, another one, and another one. If you had 18 pieces and you merged three of the pieces into one, then you actually end up with only six pieces. You end up with six pieces. Hopefully, you see that each row is one of the pieces now, and the blue is exactly one of the six, so 3/18 is the same as 1/6.