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Current time:0:00Total duration:8:42

Video transcript

hey Rosie hey David so as you know I am a bit of a foodie and you know what foodies love more than anything food well yeah but road trips cool yes so what I would like to do is go on a road trip and follow the origins of agriculture starting about I don't know eleven thousand years ago to bring us into the era of history so we're going from this Neolithic prewriting time that brings us all the way up to the first city's great so Rosie where do we begin okay we begin in modern-day Iraq Syria and Turkey okay so kind of this Fertile Crescent area a little bit of an Asian minor this is a very gross over generalization of the region we're talking about because I'm looking at this from a globe perspective with no country borders which is actually ideal because there were no nation-states right there's just kind of damp places where barley grows at this point and that's exactly what was growing there people were farming when people started farming wheat and barley and they were also domesticating animals sheep goats cows and pigs the neat thing is that in all of these places that we're going to look at agriculture was developing independently these were some of the first birth places of Agriculture in the world and people in these locations just invented it on their own so it's not like someone from the Fertile Crescent like wandered over to Mexico and said hey I discovered this thing with barley you should try it with corn this is more like independent groups of human beings all discovered this stuff independent of one another that's right kind of like the way Newton and Leibniz both discover the calculus exactly she's trying to make some cross-disciplinary connections I like it thank you okay so this is this is our earliest one though 9,000 BC 9000 BCE that's the first evidence that that archaeologists have of Agriculture okay then we move to modern-day Sudan a tree yeah near the Sahara Desert the southeastern edge of it because it's a very big desert and what was grown there pray tell sorghum so today in the United States sorghum is used mostly for animal feed but also you can also make a sweet syrup out of it I imagine that that ancient peoples used it as just like kind of a general purpose staple grain right they also domesticated cows and sheep so that's so how long ago is that rosy that was from 9,000 to 7000 BCE and that's where the Sudan and South Sudan is today yes okay then over on the western side of Africa in what is today Nigeria about a thousand years later mm-hmm people started cultivating yams okra and black-eyed peas so okra kind of these long green pods you may have eaten them before quite delicious they have kind of a delicious Musil a genus GUP hmm I know that doesn't sound delicious but you know what it is it's really important for gumbo and all sorts of foundational cuisines it's also got this lovely a little flower okay so we've got okra and okra yams and black-eyed peas now for those of you that live in the American South you may recognize a lot of these vegetables as being parts of your diets as well that's something we'll cover several thousand years from now yeah this is the time period on these crops is from about eight thousand to six thousand BCS when those got started and both of these are in sub-saharan Africa so like if we put if we posit that the the desert is like up here and up here then these regions are are beneath it that's right okay now David we're gonna head over to East Asia for a little bit so this here is our young - River yes alright so what do we have well starting at about 6500 BCE people who lived along the river started farming rice there's rice Addie's and rice needs a lot of water to grow they also domesticated pigs and buffalo which is kind of neat and they they domesticated chicken so then we go north of the Yangtze River it in the Yellow River area of China and at about 50 500 BCE people there started to cultivate millet and soybeans and rosy when did when did the young to cultivation of rice pigs and buffalo at about 6500 BCE gotcha alright so we've got these these millet stock and then we have the big broad leaves of the soybean plant little beans hanging down so that was about 5500 that's right we're going to move over to Mexico for a little bit in 4000 BC like right here right there mm-hmm so here we have those maize plants that you were your telling us about in the last video later on they they started cultivating all kinds of other other plants such as beans peppers squashes and tomatoes but in 4,000 BCE they were growing lots of maize so in about 3000 BCE over in Southeast Asia so this is kind of Thailand Vietnam Laos Cambodia yes yes so in 3000 BCE and that that area saw cultivation of taro so taro is like a starchy root vegetable taro yams coconuts breadfruit bananas and citrus fruits yeah what's interesting to me is that with the exception of citrus here all of these things that we're looking at so rice millet wheat barley yam sorghum breadfruit taro they're all starches yeah high calorie high calorie foods hmm I guess these are the sorts of things that can sustain a person right right I think when when people were starting agriculture they had to find what would be kind of the best bang for their buck right or the the most effective and types of food since this is uncharted territory so foods that had a lot of calories that were more able to sustain people would probably be the better choice so finishing up our world tour yes we're coming back over to the Americas in Peru in the Andes Mountains farmers were growing potatoes oh yeah which we haven't seen yet which is kind of cool so potatoes this food that is eaten now all over the world though the same as all of these crops begins in this one weird little mountain area in 3,000 are after 3,000 BCE and this is also the one place in the Americas where we see animals getting domesticated during this time period and in other parts of the Americas there weren't animals that were easily domesticated but here we've got llamas alpacas and even guinea pigs were domesticated all of those animals are still domesticated in that region today and including guinea pig which in Quechua is called a Qui and which people still eat I would be curious to try it actually let me - so Rosie that's our world tour of agriculture you can see all over the world from 9000 BCE to 3000 BCE human beings were adapting the local flora to their own needs and in some cases domesticating animals so like llamas and pigs and sheep and guinea pigs pretty pretty neat so David throughout the world as you're saying all of these independent locations there's this growth of Agriculture so how did that affect these these settlements and villages in the way that people organized their lives well Rosie that's a story for another time