Social, political, and environmental characteristics of early civilizations
- The growth of agriculture resulted in intensification, which had important consequences for social organization.
- Larger groups gave rise to new challenges and required more sophisticated systems of social administration.
- Complex societies took the forms of larger agricultural villages, cities, city-states, and states, which shared many features.
- Specialized labor gave rise to distinct social classes and enabled creative and innovative developments.
- Systems of record-keeping and symbolic expression grew more complex, and many societies had systems of writing.