If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Main content
Current time:0:00Total duration:7:57

Video transcript

in the next few videos we're going to do a very high-level overview of ancient history we're literally going to try to cover three thousand years of history in a handful of videos and we're going to focus on not all of the history in the world and it's worth noting that there's going to be history and in North and South America that we're not going to talk about in this video history and in Africa or parts of Africa that we're not going to talk about in this video parts of Europe parts of the Far East we're going to focus mainly on the Middle East so this yellow line this is going to be the historical timeline for ancient Egypt so that is Egypt we're talking about that area right over there this green timeline right over here you could view this as Judea we could also include we can include Judea which is where modern-day Israel Palestine we're talking about Lebanon then we can include Phoenicia right over there so I'll just write Judea Judea that's a little hard to hard to read you day Judea this blue in red and white line right over here this will be Mesopotamia so this will be Mesopotamia we talked a little bit about that in another video the area between or around the Tigris and Euphrates River mainly in modern-day Iraq that region right over there so if we say this is Judea this is Mesopotamia and we will also touch a little bit later on Persia which is that area there the ancient Greece we're going to talk a little bit about roam about Carthage and a little bit about the Indus Valley the Indus Valley civilizations what's which is in now modern-day Pakistan so with that Geographic bearing and this is a line for this is line for I'll call this the Indus Valley or in this valley or I could say India and obviously in the India is much more than just the Indus Valley and even this line over here that's China although I'm not going to go much into that into this video so let's start about 5000 years ago and all and and there are already people in all of the regions that I talked about where I'm really highlighting is where you start to have significant empires develop and I'll start in Egypt where you have the Pharaoh you have King Menace he's able to unify Upper and Lower Egypt and it's a little counterintuitive Upper Egypt is actually south of Lower Egypt and that's because the Nile River forms further south and then it flows northward and so he's able to up unify upper upper and lower egypt uppers off the map here and into the the Egyptian civilization that we often associate with ancient Egypt and it is a very very very long-lived civilization and this is a right at around the same time you have folks living in Mesopotamia you have the Acadians we were going into deep history now so we don't know exactly what was going on in the Indus Valley but we believe that there were people there as well there were people many many other places but now let's fast-forward we're going to go about 500 years and we associate ancient Egypt with the pyramids and relatively speaking the pyramids were built fairly fairly early in the history of ancient Egypt they were built about 2500 BCE or so we're talking about forty five forty six hundred years ago was the time that especially the most famous the Great Pyramid of Giza was built but now let's fast forward even more and in this narrative that I'm going to talk about in this video I'm going to introduce some characters from the Old Testament and a lot of the stories from the Old Testament they have basis in history but some of them the historical evidence isn't as clear but I'm going to include it because it's so much a part of judeo-christian Islamic Western not just Western culture that I think it gives us an interesting bearing and frankly a lot of the stories from the Old Testament are just really fascinating stories so now let's fast-forward to 1700 BCE and even though that seems like a very very long time ago and it was it's nice to get our bearings because in 1700 BCE and we're going to talk about who murabbi who lived and who ruled over Babylon the Babylonian Empire so who Marat be right over right over here in Babylon famous for the code of hammurabi he codified a series of laws we believe Abraham grew up at around the same time in or and Abraham we believe that he was coincident or maybe came a little bit after who marabi because a lot of the Old Testament seems to at least be inspired by some of what we see in houma Robbie's code and it's worth noting that even though this seems like a long time ago around 1700 BCE the time of Homer Abhiyan it turns a little white here because this is where the Babylonians become one of the dominant empires in Mesopotamia Mesopotamia even though it seems like a long time ago it's worth noting that in the time of Homer Rabi and at the time of Abraham the pyramids were already close to what seven eight hundred years old so they already would have viewed the pyramids as a very very old thing but if we if we go with the roughly the Year 1700 for about the time of Abraham he goes to what becomes Judea and his tribe becomes established there and then and does that's why I have this line going from going from Mesopotamia to Judea and we kind of see an established Judea here and once again they're not the first people there you had the Canaanites yeah the Phoenicians you have many other folks in this region but this is interesting because it relates to the Old Testament that many folks are familiar with and then you have the old test this is around 1700 let me write this this is 1700 BCE and once again I'll put approximately and then you go a few hundred years and there isn't a lot of a historical basis here but based on the Old Testament the story of Joseph Joseph going to Egypt and becoming the Vizier for the Pharaoh and then his family coming Joseph who is Abraham's grandson according to the Old Testament that story happens around if we and once again this is not established well historically and I encourage you to look up and see if you can find evidence yourself of when when this when folks think this is but the best evidence if this happened the best evidence I've seen is it's around 1500 BCE the story of Joseph and the migration of the Jewish people or significant chunk of the Jewish people to Egypt where they get enslaved and that enslavement is from 1500 they get slayed by the Pharaoh 1500 to approximately 1200 BCE and so that story go all the way from Abraham through Joseph this is in the Old Testament this is happens in Genesis and then we get to the story of Moses where he sets his people free the story of Exodus and the Jews are able to go back to Jerusalem Moses leads them parts the Red Sea according to the Old Testament and they're established the Kingdom of Jerusalem where you have the famous Kings King Saul and King David then King Solomon Solomon who famous for building the first temple and now since I'm already close to that 10-minute mark I'll leave you there because we've already covered about 2000 years of history in about eight minutes in the next video we're going to go from about 1000 BCE to the Roman Empire and the birth of Jesus