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Current time:0:00Total duration:4:41

Video transcript

where we left off in the last few videos we saw the Empire of the mongols fragment into the various khanates in the east you've duan dynasty established by Kublai Khan and then in the West you have the Golden Horde the Shah got iconi and then the ilkhanate in much of the Middle East and Persia now as we go a little bit further into the 14th century and in particular the 1330s you might remember when we studied Europe that the bubonic plague hits and it doesn't just hit Europe it hits Asia and one of the causes often given for the rapid spread is that you had relative stability formed by these khanates so that trade was able to happen but with that trade you also have the spread of disease and so the bubonic plague or the black death of the 1330s in particular does damage to the ilkhanate in Persia and the Middle East not only the Emperor but his sons all died from the bubonic plague and so you see here on this timeline the Elkin it goes into a rapid decline because of the black death and at the same time in the southwest corner of the chagatai khanate a future Conqueror is born Tim war which means iron he's often known as Tim or Lane because when he was young he was injured in both the hand and leg by arrows which impaired his movement and which is why the Europeans called him Timur the lame which became Timur Lane but despite his physical impairments he's able to conquer much of the chagatai khanate eventually and the ilkhanate and established a dynasty of his own the Empire gets established in 1370 when he gets affected power over much of the western jacket.i Khanate he comes from a Turk Oh Mongol tradition now you'll hear these terms Turco Mongol a lot because even though the Mongols conquered this large swath of territory they did so with a significant health of people speaking turkic languages from central asia turkish being the most well known of the Turkic languages and so many of the conquerors especially the Muslim conquerors of Central Asia and Persia of this period are of a Turko Mongol ethnicity even though there's no evidence of him being a direct descendant of Genghis Khan or gingy's Khan he views himself as the successor he wants to recreate the great Mongol Empire by the time of timorous death the timurid empire encompasses much of Persia Central Asia the Caucasus and the Middle East his legacy is a bloody one as he expanded territory and took over cities it was not uncommon for his soldiers to kill tens if not hundreds of thousands of civilians who revolted against Tim Wars rule his forces famously attacked the beli Sultanate not hoping to conquer India but to take it spoils in 1398 he was able to successfully defeat the Sultan who had battle elephants and he was able to defeat them by sending camels that had flames on their back to scare the elephants and famously when his forces took Delhi they killed 100,000 to 200,000 people and took the spoils of the city there are some estimates that timur's forces killed as many as 17 million people as the Empire expanded to put this into perspective this is roughly five percent of the world's population at that time now once Tim or dies in 1405 you can see from this timeline that is the Empire does not last long as we get to the second half of the 15th century it is in decline now some of his descendants end up ruling over fragmented portions of this Empire and as we get into the sixteenth century we'll see one descendant in particular his grandsons great grandson takes on the delhi sultanate and establishes the Mogul which is persian for mongol establishes the Mughal Empire in northern India