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Current time:0:00Total duration:8:37

Video transcript

in other videos we talked about some of the truly ancient Chinese dynasties the Shang Dynasty the Jo dynasty is we get to the end of the Jo Dynasty China falls into chaos in the warring States Period which is a really tough time for China but the silver lining is it's also the time that you have all of these schools of thought the hundred schools of thought of which Confucianism and Taoism and legalism and the all of these other schools of thoughts begin to emerge but what we're really going to focus on in this video is the beginning of truly Imperial China under the Qin Dynasty from which China gets its name so here we are in the third century BCE and you have your first true Emperor of China Qin Shihuang and the dynasty that he sets up is known as the Qin Dynasty which will be shortly lived but it's known as the first dynasty to truly unify China and this is where we believe the word China actually comes from from the Qin Dynasty the dynasty is known for its fairly harsh centralized rule motivated over the foundation on legalism in terms of relics that we have from that period you might have heard of the Terracotta Army which was buried along with Qin Shih Huang's grave now the Qin Dynasty is most known for ending the warring States period and unifying China and really laying the foundation for the Golden Age of China that will happen in the Han Dynasty the Han Dynasty lasts for roughly 200 BCE - a little after 200 CE II and in my head I think of it as a bit of a contemporaries the Roman Empire the two hundred years of the Western Han Dynasty correspond roughly to the Roman Republic and as we get to the eastern Han Dynasty that corresponds to really the heyday of the Roman Empire and it's also a golden age of China a time where science and the art and its actually Confucianism begins to really take hold in China becomes officially part of the civil service part of the bureaucracy the Han Dynasty was so successful at unifying China culturally and linguistically that today 92 percent of Chinese identify themselves as ethnically Han so sometimes you'll hear the word Han referring to the Han Dynasty and sometimes it will be referring to the Han ethnic group which really derives from the notion of the unification under the Han Dynasty now the Han Dynasty as we see here ends at the beginning of the third century in the Common Era and then China gets fragmented again and it gets split into multiple dynasties this roughly 360 years that I don't have marked on my timeline it's not that nothing was happening in China in fact a lot was but China was not unified to get a sense of that here is China during the Three Kingdoms period in the third century shortly after the fall of the Han Dynasty you see the Jin dynasty depicted here in the fourth century still part of what's often those this Six Dynasties period that's roughly 300 years of a fragmented China and then you see this North and South dynasty period here in the sixth century and eventually China is reunified and that happens under the sway it is unified under Emperor wen of sway for whom the dynasty is known and similar to the Qin what the sway are most known for is taking this chaotic period and finally unifying China and the sway are ethnically Han and they lay the foundation for another golden age of China under the tongue and the Song dynasties the Tong dynasty depicted here it rivals the Han as a golden age of China it's a time where the arts the sciences really come about one interesting thing about this Six Dynasties period that we talk about which is a chaotic time it is the time that Buddhism starts to come into China from Central Asia originally from India and by the sway and the tongue it really takes hold now one of the most important innovations that comes from tong china is the notion of block printing what you see depicted here is one of the first books ever printed the Diamond Sutra during the Tang Dynasty now after the Tong falls in 907 you have on a historical time scale a relatively brief period of chaos again about 50 I guess exactly 53 years we get this Five Dynasties and ten kingdoms period but then China gets reunified under the Song Dynasty and the Song Dynasty is able to on some level pick up where the Tong dynasty left off one thing that happens as we get into the late tang dynasty is that there's pushback against Buddhism that we talk about in other videos and you see neo-confucianism begin to take hold and it really takes hold under the Song Dynasty that we talk about in other videos now the Song Dynasty is also known as a time of really putting a lot of energy into the civil service and the bureaucracy and it really being very meritocratic based on some of these neo-confucian ideals it's also a time of significant technological innovation the compass which has used as early as the Han Dynasty but I really get into it fairly evolved or modern form especially for maritime use during the Song Dynasty the notion of a Chinese junk boat also gets into its evolved form during the Song Dynasty now some of the really far-reaching innovations from this dynasty include building on the Tong use of block printing but thinking about movable type which may printing far more practical and maybe the biggest single innovation that changed the world for better worse was the use of gunpowder which there's some use in the late tongue but it really starts to get perfected during the Song Dynasty now the Song Dynasty is eventually overthrown in the 13th century by the Mongols and they are able to establish the Wan dynasty with Kublai Khan being the first emperor of it grandson of Genghis or jeonggi's Khan now they are eventually overthrown in the 14th century by the Ming Dynasty the Ming Dynasty is once again ethnically Han and some of the most famous attractions that that are associated with China today really work came about from the Ming Dynasty this is the forbidden palace the Imperial residence during the Ming and Qing dynasties in Beijing this is the Great Wall of China and even though the history of the Great Wall of China goes a good ways back even to the Jo and warring States period much of what you now see is the Great Wall a lot of this brickwork was built during the Ming Dynasty and then the last true dynasty of China is the chain and the Ching dynasty is again to some degree foreign rule it's ruled by the Manchus who come from Manchuria which is this region right over here and they're eventually able to overwhelm the Ming Dynasty and rule China all the way until the early 20th century when the Republic of China is able to overthrow them