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Focus on state building: Song China


Before answering the question, read the following excerpt.
Note: The Song Chinese considered themselves ethnically Han. This comes from the cultural and linguistic foundation established by the Han Dynasty. Most Chinese today still consider themselves ethnically Han.
"When the Song dynasty came into power in 960, it had to accept a geopolitical system in which no state dominated all its neighbors. The Song continually had to negotiate power with the alien states on its borders. (...)
This fear of alien regimes, particularly of the Liao and Xi Xia to the north, impeded the ability of the Han Chinese to recognize the regional achievements of these peoples. The “barbarians” were viewed as uncivilized intruders who disturbed the proper course of history, which meant Chinese history exclusively--the only history considered worthy of being investigated and recorded."
From Dieter Kuhn, The Age of Confucian Rule: The Song Transformation of China (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009), 20.
The Song Chinese people’s description of outside groups as “barbarians” and their unwillingness to recognize any history outside of Chinese history indicates that
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