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Current time:0:00Total duration:8:13

Video transcript

we're now going to talk about the main division that emerges in Islam shortly after the death of Muhammad and that division is between Sunnis and Shias and this division even exists today where roughly 90% of the world's 1.5 or 1.6 billion Muslims are Sunni and roughly 10% are Shia and that 10% is concentrated mainly in places like Iran Iraq but they are spread throughout the Muslim world or the world in general now the word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah which is referring to examples of Muhammad the word Shia comes from shiatsu Ali which means followers of Ali or party of Ali and we'll talk more about Ali in a little bit but the general division is over who should succeed Muhammad after his death as the leader of the Muslim community she has believe it should be members of Muhammad's family and especially descendants of Muhammad while the Sunnis believe that it doesn't necessarily have to be that but as we'll see this division becomes stronger and stronger and stronger as there's more and more bloodshed between the two parties because so much of this revolves around the family of Muhammad let's just review that first and then we'll talk about the division over who should succeed Muhammad as caliph or successor to lead the Muslim community so you see Muhammad right over here born 570 we have his birth on our timeline as well and just to read this timeline it goes from light blue to dark blue when Muhammad according to Islamic tradition starts to have the revelations from God and the Muslim calendar starts at 622 at the time of the Hegira where the Muslim community in order to escape persecution from the Quraish migrated from Mecca to Medina now we've talked about several of these figures in other videos right over here you have Muhammad's dad Abdullah who died several months before Mohammed is born you have Amana here who is Muhammad's mother and she dies when Mohammed is six years old then you have Abdul Muttalib who is the head of Muhammad's you could say household and he takes custody after the death of Amana and he takes custody until Mohammed is 8 years old when I will look to live dies and then Muhammad's uncle Abu Talib takes custody it's under Abu Talib that Muhammad learned his trade as a merchant and as a trader now later on we talk about Khadija who is a wealthy widow in Mecca and she employs Muhammad and according to Islamic tradition is impressed by him and proposes to him and she's 15 years older than Muhammad this is her third marriage and Muhammad marries her she's a significant figure in Islam not because she is Muhammad's first wife but also because she is the first Muslim now as you can see Muhammad and cathedra they have several children and I list one of them here fatima because fatima ends up marrying Abu Talib's son Ali and Ali is the Ali that we're talking about where the word shyah shyah puh Ali comes from party of Ali because Ali is considered the second Muslim he is one of the early followers of Muhammad as you can see he is Muhammad's cousin he grows up in the same household with Muhammad with Abu palate and he is also Muhammad's son-in-law he marries fatima and they have several children two of which are Hasan and Husayn who figure very prominently in the narrative I'm going to talk about in this video and the next now the other figures that you see here you have Abu Bakr who was a close companion of Muhammad also one of the early Muslims and you can see he was a little bit younger than Muhammad and they are connected through Aisha Muhammad marries Aisha after the death of cathedra and Aisha is a significant figure in earliest she's considered to have a very strong personality many of the hadith are narrated by her the hadith are the Muslim traditions and accounts of Muhammad's life and it's a significant part of the religion outside of the Quran and she is married to Mohamed at a very very young age and there's some debate about how young she actually was but as we'll see she also figures prominently in this narrative and in the schism that developed between the Sunni and the Shia and the Sunni and the Shia view her differently so let's go back to the timeline here so as Muhammad's life nears its end in 632 in previous videos we talked about his final pilgrimage to Mecca and then on his way back to Medina at a place like gather come he gives a sermon a sermon that is especially very important to the Shia according to that short sermon and gather come gather literally means pond or small streams was the sermon at the pond come there's one quotation that Shia considered to be very very important where Muhammad says of whomsoever I had been moula ali here is to be his mullah and the word mola means protector or leader or it could mean guardian or people that you are close to and the Shia view this as clear evidence that Muhammad intended Ali to be his successor many members of the Sunni tradition take a slightly different interpretation where they say mola doesn't necessarily have to mean protector or leader it could mean companion or friend or member that is close to and so they don't view this as strongly of evidence but in the Shia tradition the event that gather come is actually a significant event and it is even a holiday so that's the evidence that Shia point to as why Ali should be the successor but then Muhammad dies and according to the tradition while his funeral was being planned by family the close companions were meeting and discussing who should succeed Muhammad and the close companions decide that it should be Abu Bakr so Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph and he rules for two years he succeeded by Umar sometimes pronounced as Omar who then is assassinated who is succeeded by Othman sometimes pronounced as Osman who is then assassinated and then Ali takes power according to Sunni tradition the first four caliphs are considered the Russia boon calles or the rightly guided and under their rule you have the significant spread of what becomes this Islamic empire that we talked about in other videos in Shia tradition they consider these first three kalus as usurpers they believed that Ali should have been khalaf from the beginning right in 632 at the time of Muhammad's death and once again they cite the events at Gadar Combe which was observed according to the hadith by thousands of people and there's many many accounts of this now Ali is in power but as we will see in the next video this starts the first civil war the first Muslim civil war often referred to as the first fitna between Ali and the Umayyads who are the family of both maan and we will cover that in the next video