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Focus on cultural interactions: Srivijaya Empire


Before answering the question, read the following excerpt.
"Chinese records show tribute missions (trade) in the sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries and again in the tenth and eleventh. Srivijaya’s “tribute” consisted of pepper, resins, rattans, ivory, plumes, birds’ nests, turtles, sea cucumber, and mother-of-pearl; “gifts” from China’s emperors to Srivijaya were industrial dyes, iron, ceramics, and silk. In the Chinese presentation, for seven hundred years a Sumatran state is recognized as a vassal, which acts as intermediary for many barbarian archipelago harbor states, bringing their tribute to China along with Srivijaya’s own. In Chinese presentation, the honor of being a vassal is conferred by China, and it is taken away by China when the vassal proves itself unworthy. In 1380, Srivijaya was stripped of its special relationship to China and the honor of being China’s vassal was transferred to the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit."
from Jean Gelman Taylor, Indonesia: Peoples and Histories (Yale University Press, 2003), 24.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between Srivijaya and China?
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