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Current time:0:00Total duration:10:44

Video transcript

in other videos we talked about the rapid spread of Islam and one of the interesting things about these early Islamic empires is they preserved much of what they inherited from the Byzantine and the Persian empires the infrastructure including the roads the bureaucracy a lot of the culture and they also began to collect the knowledge from within the Empire and from the peoples that they encountered on the borders of the Empire including the Indians and the Chinese and they did this throughout the Umayyad dynasty but really came to its full fruition during the Abbasid Caliphate now the Abbasid Caliphate one of the first things they did under the caliph al Mansour is build Baghdad and move the capital of the Empire to Baghdad now one of almond Sora's successors al-rasheed is famous for making Baghdad a center of learning according to the historian will John William Draper this is a sense of what life was like under Al Rasheed's rule during the period of the Collis the learned men of the Christians and the Jews were not only held in great esteem but were appointed to posts of great responsibility and were promoted to the high-ranking jobs in the government he calleth haroon rasheed never considered to which country alerted person belonged nor his faith and belief but only his excellence in the field of learning and to get a sense of how much learning and how advanced the knowledge began to be especially under the rulership of all over she'd during this time he was a contemporary of Charlemagne who was the Frankish king he's also the first Holy Roman Emperor and so it's this region right over here and they were trading gifts and and this is a historical account Harun al-rashid sends Charlemagne this water clock and it's so foreign to the Franks to Charlemagne he thinks that it's it must be some type of magic that it can't be explained by just normal means and then things really get invested in in terms of collecting knowledge as we get into the rule of al-rasheed son al Mamoon where he creates in Baghdad what is called the house of wisdom which is this Center of learning of mathematics astronomy physics medicine geography and map making poetry philosophy and over the next several hundred years these Abbasid caliphs are going to sponsor scholars from India learning in Sanskrit and the sense ancient Sanskrit texts and Greek Chinese Persian to translate as much of that knowledge and to collect it in libraries in cities like Baghdad - translated into Arabic and to collect all of that knowledge in one place and just to get a sense of the type of advances that occurred during this Golden Age of Islam which correlates strongly the Abbasid dynasty and it ends with the Mongol invasion in the middle of the thirteenth century right over here there are scientists like Al Gore's ami and all cores ami is a Persian mathematician and physicist and he's famous for being the the father of algebra the word algebra that we now have today and one the subject you can learn a lot about on Khan Academy it comes from the Arabic word algebra and his book al-kitab I'll mock besar his saab algebra while mu kabbalah which literally means and those of you who might speak Arabic or Persian or even Hindi or who might recognize kitab is book and then his saab is calculation and algebra is an operation of completion and it's essentially this it's one of the operations we now do in algebra where you're doing the same thing to both sides of the equation and balancing it was also a very similar similar operation he also brought the Indian number system or the Hindu numerals he brought them to the Islamic empire and that was really the bridge to bringing it to the West famously pope sylvester ii he was educated in catalonia with the point of acquiring knowledge that was gained from the arabs remember the arabs were in control over the Islamic empires it was not the Abbasids it was actually the remnants of the Umayyads were in control of Spain at the time but because of that this area was considered a center of learning and pope sylvester who got his education there he's the one that is often given credit for being one of the first to introduce the decimal numeral system this hindu-arabic decimal system that we now use for our numeric system as opposed to something like roman numerals another very interesting thing is not only the word algebra comes from algebra but the word algorithm is literally comes from his name the name al-khwarizmi Alcor is me and latin lu they pronounces algorithm e so other significant contributors to the science of all of human civilization are people like omar huazi al maraa z once again in baghdad and he would have been a contemporary of all quar is me and he if you've ever taken trigonometry or if you're about to take trigonometry he is accredited with coming up with the core trigonometric functions we're talking about sine cosine tangent and cotangent it might have been Marwa Z or it might have been another mathematician named Al who's Johnny who came a little bit after or a lot depending on a human scale but was also based in Baghdad and together they came up with the six the six trigonometric functions they weren't contemporary to each other but they both made significant contributions to what we now call trigonometry including many of the trigonometric identities that we now learn Highschool now you also have physicists mathematicians astronomers like alhazen and he is credited as getting one of the more sophisticated views of how light and vision works these are some quotes from alhazen from each point of every color body illuminated by any light issue light and color along every straight line that can be drawn from that point this is a fairly sophisticated view of how light actually works and he's also credited with with using and understanding the scientific method several hundred years before the Renaissance in Europe the duty of a man the duty of the man who investigates the writing of scientists if learning the truth is his goal is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads and attack it from every side he should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency and now another very famous poet philosopher mathematician polymath of the time was Omar Khayyam and in the West he's most famous for his poetry most famously the work of the Rubaiyat the translation by Fitzgerald but he was also a significant philosopher map leticia this is a picture of some of his work right over here you can see that he did his work in the 11th and the 12th centuries and he did it from Bukhara but he investigated Pascal's triangle and the binomial theorem and keep in mind this was over 500 years before Pascal so maybe it should actually be called Khayyam triangle and just to get a sense of his poetry or a sense of the roux bias in general which I encourage you to look up and read and this is at least Fitzgerald translation of it and that inverted Bowl we called the sky we're under crawling cooped we live and die list not by hands to it for help for it rolls impotently on as thou or I so as you can imagine this the Islamic world these empires between the 8th and 13th centuries it was actually a very powerful bridge of human knowledge taking knowledge from the Indians the Chinese the ancient Greeks and providing a bridge during the Dark Ages in Europe and get a sense of that we have some texts from some historians on that time period this is some text from this is some text from the historian Philip hitti and he wrote during all the first part of the Middle Ages no other people made as important to contribution to human progress as did the Arabs if we take this term to mean all those whose mother tongue was a Arabic and not merely those living in the Arabian Peninsula for centuries Arabic was the language of learning culture and intellectual progress for the whole of the civilized world with the exception of the Far East from the 9th to the 12th century there were more philosophical medical historical religious astronomical and geographical works written in Arabic than in any other human tongue and we also have a frame a point of view from Bertrand Russell in his history of Western philosophy who wrote our use of the phrase the dark ages to cover the period from 699 to 1,000 marks our undue concentration on Western Europe in China this period includes the time of the tang dynasty the greatest age of Chinese poetry from India to Spain the brilliant civilization of Islam flourished what was lost to Christendom at this time was not lost to civilization but quite the contrary to us it seems that Western European civilization is civilization but this is a narrow view