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Current time:0:00Total duration:7:00

Video transcript

as we get into the second half of the 1930s we seen an increasingly aggressive nazi germany in 1935 they publicly announced their intent to re-arm their military the reason why this is significant is not that they were all of a sudden building their military they in fact were doing this as soon as they had taken power in 1933 but now they felt confident enough to publicly state their intention which is another way of publicly of publicly stating that they could care less about the treaty of versailles which had said that germany was limited to a hundred thousand soldier military then we get into 1936 1936 you might remember another term of the treaty of versailles was that germany was not allowed to occupy the rhineland this area in yellow right over here and then that was actually reaffirmed in 1925 by the treaties of lucarno where germany itself agreed to not occupy the rhineland but by 1936 hitler decides to ignore all of those and occupies the rhineland occupies the rhineland but once again the allies the french are not so happy about this but yet but the uk in particular once again not not super happy about this but they decide that this is not reason to potentially start another war over so they really don't push back on germany then we get into 1938 1938 and german aggression really goes into full gear in march in march of 1938 you have a a a coup d'etat orchestrated by the nazis in austria that really overthrows the the austrian government and allows the germans to unify the two countries so you have the germans come into austria really a bloodless takeover and there is uh there there was already popular support for the nazis in austria there was a nazi party in austria there had been popular sentiment for for many years amongst many austrians to possibly be unified with the germans austria is fundamentally a german-speaking nation and so in march this actually happens this ancelus or unification and if you remember that was also another forbidden term of the treaty of versailles so now the germans are pretty much ignoring the treaty of versailles and the treaty of saint-germain which was the equivalent of the treaty of versailles but with the austrians so you have a unification of germany and austria then as we get into late 1938 in september in particular hitler and the germa and the nazis are interested in in in bringing the german-speaking populations of czechoslovakia under german control and this region right over here in magenta this is where you have you have large populations of german speakers these regions are collectively referred to as the sudetenland suedetin sudetenland and really just continuing the policy of not wanting to rock the boat with germany you have france great britain and italy agreeing and italy wasn't was an ally of of the germans but france and great britain in particular are not interested in rocking the boat with the germans and so in september of 1938 they signed the munich agreement the munich agreement which did not actually where they actually did not consult the czechoslovakian government where they allowed germany to take over this region right over here the sudan land and that frankly with the germans taking over this the significant part of the the population of czechoslovakia a significant part of the industrial capacity of czechoslovakia this eventually leads to early 1939 early 1939 where all of what we would now consider the czech republic the the this area right over here all over this becomes a protectorate of germany so they they call it the the protectorate of bohemia and moravia so bohemia and moravia go to germany and moravia and so this is 1939. so as as we get into early 1939 you see this repeated pattern over the last four years nazi germany ignoring the treaty of versailles by rearming by occupying the rhineland by unifying with austria now they're expanding their territory they they are actively allowed to take over the german-speaking areas of czechoslovakia under the munich agreement and eventually they are able to take over bohemian moravia all of kind of the what we would currently call the czech republic and this general pattern of german aggression followed by the other powers in europe essentially allowing it to happen in particular great britain allowing it to happen has been referred to as a policy of appeasement obviously the word appeasement means if you there's someone who's angry about something and you just don't want to make them any angrier you just let them do whatever they want this is essentially what was happening over here and in hindsight it might be easy to say hey look they were allowing germany to take over more and more to become more and more aggressive which made it more and more confident and this would eventually lead to world war ii but at the time you do have to remember there the the the everyone still had a very strong memory of what had happened in world war one and no one was interested in starting another pan-europe war and so even in in hindsight it's easy to to uh to say that the the british in particular neville chamberlain who was the prime minister from 1937 on were weak and allowed german the hitler to gain confidence which eventually allowed to which eventually led to the nazi invasion of poland at the end of in the fall of 1939 but it's easier it's easy to say that in hindsight but what we see as we get into 1939 is a aggressive germany a germany that's not being checked by the other powers of europe and this is what eventually leads to september of 1939 where actually the germans and the soviets agree to partition poland into their own spheres of influences which allows germany to invade poland in early september 1939 which is you could kind of say the straw that broke the camel's back and is the beginning of so poland invasion invasion of poland which is the beginning of world war ii