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Current time:0:00Total duration:11:56

Video transcript

where we left off in the last video in 1924 Hitler was in jail his coup d'etat 1923 his famous beer hall pooched in munich had failed he's now in jail he's writing mine Kampf when he gets out of jail so this is when he's in jail the Nazi Party is banned and a lot of the economic turmoil that made the possibility of overthrowing the government more likely as that we saw in the early twenties that hyperinflation in Weimar Germany this was now under control by the time Hitler comes out of jail they had issued new currency it was far more stable so to a certain degree they were the Nazis and Hitler were starting from scratch although even at this point Hitler continues to be an ever growing influence he's a famous speaker there are more and more people who are knowing about him who were following him over the next few years his book does get published and it's it sells actually tens of thousands of copies over the next several years but for the most part he's still a relatively small actor in German politics but then we fast-forward as we get to the late 20s the Nazis are gaining some influence but then in 1929 in 1929 you have a global change for for the economy of the world and that's the beginning of the Great Depression in particular what's often kind of the the first sign that the Great Depression was at hand is you have the US stock market crashes in October of 1929 famous black Tuesday and that was the mark of the beginning of a not just a American depression but a global depression so bring you have the whole world going into depression and anytime you have economic turmoil it tends to give more energy to the more extreme parties whether it is the parties like the Nazis who one could consider maybe to be on the extreme right are often considered to be on the extreme right or very high or maybe you could say very nationalistic or even the extreme left parties who are obviously against capitalist systems and and whatever else and so by the election of 1930 and now we're talking about parliamentary elections and the Parliament in Germany is the rice tag the rice rice tag and I know I'm mispronouncing it in the Reichstag elections the Nazi Party for the first time is able to have a significant showing it gets 18 it gets roughly 18 percent of the vote and a proportional representation in the parliament so now all of a sudden this kind of marks the beginning of the Nazis being significant significant players in German politics then we get to 1932 and the economy is not improving it's only getting worse 1932 Adolf Hitler actually makes a run for president the current president at that point is paul von hindenburg famous for the Hindenburg Line later for the Hindenburg the Zeppelin the famous exploding Zeppelin disaster and he was with Ludendorff one of the two leaders of the German military effort during World War one he's president of the Weimar Republic since 1925 and in 1932 he is able to get re-election but Hitler has a has a fairly good showing Hitler is able to get 35% of the vote Hitler gets 35% of the presidential election votes of the vote and the Weimar Republic had the strange system it wasn't quite a presidential system like the US and it wasn't quite a pure parliamentary system like the current day Germany the president was independently elected and had some powers and then the Parliament was also independently elected and then they would try to build coalitions to have a ruling government but needless to say 1932 Hitler is now a major actor the Nazis also have a many many many seats in parliament now you have several parliamentary elections as well in 1932 and as we just talked about two in particular in order for a government to form in parliament in order to find the cabinet and the chancellor who is essentially the prime minister you have an election and the different parties get different amounts of votes and if no party has a majority the parties have to form a coalition that can make a majority and so there's a lot of horse trading going on with parties negotiating hey why don't we form a coalition with each other if we do that maybe someone from my party can be Minister of the Interior some of your someone of your party could be the Chancellor and maybe we can get a coalition together to rule over the government but you have two parliamentary elections and no majority coalition forms so two two elections so this is parliamentary so this is in the presidential election Hindenburg is still president but Hitler has a good showing and then you have two parliamentary elections Parliament elections or rye stag elections where you have no majority no coalition no majority majority coalition and the Nazis continue to be a major actor here they continue to get have more and more of a showing inside the rice tag so then by 1933 it's a bit of a crisis so as we get into early 1933 we have a little bit of a crisis we have no government we have a no Chancellor we have no cabinet to essentially be the executive the government - of the country because there has been no major coalition and the Weimar Constitution allowed a strange thing it allowed the President to appoint a government appoint a cabinet a chancellor that might not even be representative of what's going on in Parliament and so paul von hindenburg is convinced that hey look and he was no fan there's you know that he was no fan of Adolf Hitler but he's convinced that look Adolf Hitler was your opponent if you make Adolf Hitler the head of an interim government the head of an interim cabinet then that might be a way to create some national unity and and then maybe we could have some parliamentary elections that there can be a majority coalition and you could have I guess you could say a more legitimate government take hold and so paul von hindenburg is convinced and so he does even though even though the Nazis are still a minority party even though they weren't part of any type of a majority coalition paul von hindenburg who's not a fan of Adolf Hitler appoints him as Chancellor so this is in January so in January Hitler Hitler is appointed Chancellor Chancellor which is essentially the Prime Minister of the rice tag of the of of Germany and then we get to February and events get really really really interesting so in February of 1933 you have a fire in the Reichstag building in Berlin so this is the rice tag building right over here and it is on fire and they find this gentleman here on the scene marinus van der Lubbe he's a dutch communist it is essentially the blame is placed as this was some type of a the beginning of some type of a communist revolution and this is used as a pretext Hitler then advises pond Paul von Hindenburg to essentially use some of his emergency powers as president - which is another strange thing that the Weimar Constitution allowed for it allowed the president under emergency conditions to start to suspend civil rights this was an emergency situation and so you paul von hindenburg does that so he essentially issues and you so once you have the you have the ricetec fire rise tag fire and then Hindenburg is convinced by the Nazis to pie to pass the Reichstag the rush tag fire decree fire decree which essentially suspends it gives the government emergency powers and it suspends civil liberties which everything up to this point now is actually legal this was actually allowed for in the Weimar Constitution suspends suspends civil civil liberties and since there is no coalition the whole point that that Hitler's cabinet was going to be an interim one you have another you have another parliamentary election coming in March it with the with the hope of maybe a majority coalition forms but that March election especially with civil liberties suspended you could imagine that the Nazis and they have their there ed they're kind of their store they're their paramilitary troopers started intimidating other parties making sure that they had a better showing at the polls they started intimidating other candidates the march election start to swing hugely in the Nazis favor so in the March election they're able to get 44% of the vote which is still not enough by themselves to form a government it's still not a majority but they are able now this is a there there now the largest party in the Reichstag in the parliament they're able to now form a majority coalition and I guess you could say more legitimately although this was a election of intimidation they were able to now they're able to now form a government they're able to now form a government based on a majority coalition and Hitler remains Chancellor but then this new Parliament passes the enabling act in March enabling act enabling act which is essentially an amendment to the Weimar Constitution which gives the cabinet especially the Chancellor effectively the Chancellor who's the head of the cabinet legislative powers unlimited legislative powers for the next four years so it gives it gives legislative powers and remember we already have suspended civil rights so the Reichstag is essentially giving over the legislative power legislative powers to to the Chancellor who happens to be who happens to be Hitler and there was some check on this by the president but then we have Hindenburg dying the next year but after this after the suspension of civil rights and then the enabling act shortly afterwards Hitler is essentially in full control Hitler and the Nazis are essentially in full control of the German government and at this point Hitler is the dictator the dictator of he is the dictator of Germany and they start to act fast they start to intimidate other parties they they use violence they start to imprison people and by July of 1933 so they're acting very very fast by July of 1933 Nazis are the only legal party only legal pop party and they essentially have full control now this is how Hitler came to power and now the question that's probably circling in your mind is who did this fire this fire was the catalyst although Hitler was already Chancellor and maybe he would have found some way to get to power regardless but this fire even though there was evidence that look like maybe marinus van der Lubbe did it it was blamed on the communists it was the pretext that was used to give the the government even more power especially the the Nazis even more power this is an open question one of those great open questions one of those great open questions of history some people feel that maybe it was just a a communist plot maybe it was marinus van der Lubbe acting on his own and and maybe it just happened to fall into the hands of Hitler and they were able to use it while other historians think that this was actually a plot by the Nazis to kind of create this emergency state and marinus van der Lubbe was just kind of a puppet in this in this whole plot so open question of history but needless to say as we go from 1919 to 1933 Hitler goes from a fairly unknown individual to full dictator of Germany