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Current time:0:00Total duration:23:29

Video transcript

where we left off in the last video we saw that things were already starting to get ugly as early as October of 1789 we saw the women's March where there were these suspicions that the Royals were hoarding the grain so they marched to Versailles and they essentially stormed Versailles and forced the Royals forced louis xvi and marie antoinette to move back to paris then things continued to be tense there were uprisings the king didn't know what to do he obviously didn't like the situations the people became more and more suspicious of the king nobles were leaving the country they were emigrating out of france the king and queen themselves started to get paranoid that gee you know maybe people have even more radical notions than this constitutional monarchy maybe we ourselves should escape so then we saw in 1791 and let me write this all down in a timeline so this is we're now in 1791 and this is a review of the last video June we saw the Royals try to escape Royals try escape but they're captured in Varenne and then they're sent back to Paris to essentially to be in house arrest and the twill erease this is a building right here it doesn't exist anymore but if you go to Paris and if you visit the Louvre you'll see kind of the lube opens across the street into the twill eree garden this is where that building used to be so the Royals end up in house arrest house arrest at the twill erease this was in June then in July then in July in 1791 once again all review from the last video people said hey they tried to escape that's equivalent to abdication of the throne they don't even want to be our King Queen and we don't need kings and queens to begin with so the most radical elements the most radical leftist elements in particular the jacobins the jacobins they started getting petitions they started getting petitions in the shop damar to essentially get people say we don't need a royalty anymore we just need a like we need a state without without a kings and queens but then the the National Assembly sent in some troops things got ugly rocks were thrown shots were fired 50 people died and you have the Shump damar massacre so then you have the sharm chump damar massacre so things are really really heating up and then we saw at the end of 1791 to not make things even worse or not even at the end in August August we had the pill the declaration of pillnitz declaration of pillnitz which we saw was the essential the rulers of Austria and Prussia saying that they don't like what's happening to the Royals in France and for obvious reasons well one the ruler the the leopold ii was the brother of marie antoinette but even more profound they didn't like this notion of people rising up against royalty that might give people in their own empires or in their own countries ideas about what to do with them so this this even though this might have not been taken seriously this was just a declaration by these guys this made people in France even more paranoid now while all of this was happening you might have remembered that Tennis Court Oath that occurred several years ago where they said we promised to do make to create a constitution and so a constitution does get created so in 1791 there is actually a constant the National Assembly or the Constituent Assembly actually does create a constitution create a constitution of 1791 which establishes France as a constitutional monarchy so they're saying I will still have a king but it'll be more of a of a a you know it'll be it'll be kind of more of a figurehead not that's not only someone who can create laws the National Assembly will be responsible for that the king will get a few abilities to veto legislation and whatnot but most of their powers are removed so this was a constitutional monarchy constitutional constitute that a little bit neater constitutional monarchy and its really along the lines of what was already going on in Great Britain but this on some levels it's a major achievement you know they had that oath to create a constitution but on a whole other level things are getting so ugly in France and in particular in Paris the Revolution was really focused on what was going on in Paris and Versailles things were getting so ugly that this is starting to become a sideshow and to some degree the revolutionaries have gone beyond wanting just a constitutional monarchy they're starting to think about wanting a republic we saw that when during the Shump de Mar massacre people started signing signatures to actually have a republic and then they were fired on which probably makes them want to have a republic even more now the other thing you might remember from the very first video is the thing that really precipitated this whole revolution or at least in my mind one of the main things that precipitated this whole revolution is that France France was broke France was broke and people are going hungry this is happening the whole time while all of these politicians and revolutionaries and royalties are moving around and trying to kind of strategize their petition position this is still no one has solved either of these problems the entire time there is no money in France there is a famine people are going hungry and so pretty much everyone whether you look at louis xvi let me look at him again it's always nice to remember what he looked like whether you're talking about louis xvi who's now in house arrest or whether you're talking about many of the revolutionaries everyone starts to say gee how can we solve this problem people are going to throw us out if we don't solve this problem of hunger and being broke so as you'll see in history many times the best solution for that or the perceived Vestal solution is to start a war so they declare war declare war on Austria and if you think about it from Louis the sixteenth point of view he thought of it as kind of a win-win situation if the war is successful he kind of threw his weight behind the war and this happened let me write down the dates that always helps me frame where it has this this is now so this was this is kind of ending 1791 and then war is declared in April this is now 1792 1792 and then this right here is in April and if you think about it this was a win-win or at least from Louis the sixteenth point of view it was a win-win if they did well in the war it might make him more popular might make him stronger they might be able to plunder the wealth of other countries to help I guess get some to build France's coffee if the war goes badly and France loses then what's going to happen then you're going to have Austria and probably the other people here at war with we'll see it's very quickly France is going to be at war with most of the powers of Europe but if if you lose the war these powers which are controlled by monarchs they're going to essentially get rid of the revolutionaries and probably put louis xvi back in power so far early the sixteenth point of view is a good idea and for a lot of the revolutionaries they wanted to solve these two problems so they said hey yeah that would be good if we could plunder other countries if you could steal grain from other countries to make at least the french less hungry and maybe we can spread the revolution we can we can topple all of these other kings that this won't just be a french revolution that this will be all of europe revolution so we declared war on Austria very quickly they tried to attack the Austrian Netherlands they tried to attract the Austrian Netherlands which was kind of disjoint from the rest of Austria so they attacked right there into the Austrian Netherlands although they got kind of bogged down there wasn't as successful as they thought it would be and Prussia which as you remember participated in the declaration of pillnitz decided to enter the war on the side of Austria so prussia prussia attacks and at first it's pretty pretty successful it's able to make some headway into france and then the the general in charge of the prussian army the duke of brunswick the duke of brunswick he makes the Brunswick manifesto let me write that down Bruns Wyck manifesto which is essentially just like the declaration of pillnitz but it has a lot more teeth behind it now because this dude the duke of brunswick he's actually he's got an army invading France and he declares his manifesto is saying I intend to overthrow this whole revolutionary government and I intend to install the King again install install the King all of this happened in April of 1790 to declare war on Austria seemed like a win-win for the King the revolutionaries wanted to spread the Revolution and plunder other countries and then immediately Prussia jumps in starts attacking France and says we're going to install the King so you could imagine this is making the revolutionaries even more paranoid about what the king is up to they think that the king has some type of secret deal with the Prussians or with the other with the with the enemies that they're going up against so in August of 1792 there's only a few months later what four or five months later in August of 1792 you essentially have this the commune of Paris and they say kommune of Paris is really the government of Paris at this time and it's been taken over by even more revolutionary people mainly jacobins and they storm where the royal family is staying at the Tuileries so storming storming let me write your storm storm twee laries Tuileries which is that building right here and this painting right here is a depiction of the revolutionaries that mainly Jacobins who are actually storming the Tuileries and they imprison louis xvi and marine Marie Antoinette because they're really you know they're like hey the the Prussians have already declared they have an army and they've already declared the intention to install the King we're going to imprison the King because we don't know what he's up to so they imprison imprison I'm my spelling in prison louis xvi and Marie Antoinette and they're also able to do some mashin nations within the actual National Assembly and there's actually a rump session of the National Assembly which means that a lot of the opponents weren't there so it was a session where it was mainly the leftist the radicals the jacobins were there and in so an August at that rump session they declare so the Assembly declares a republic declares a republic which is equivalent to saying that louis xvi is no longer king and this this nation we have or this this country we now have will never have a king it is now a republic it is a government without a king and while all of this was happened you have these gangs kind of going around the region around paris and they're just trying and killing people that just seem to be suspicious seem to be seem to be allied some way so in some way with the nobility or with the king or in some way are royalist they want eventually for the monarchy to come back and in that kind of in those those riots and those arbitrary executions and killings they actually ended up killing over 1,400 people 1,400 executed at this time so you can see things are getting uglier and uglier and uglier King is imprisoned and you're going to see that he's not going to be imprisoned long but it's not going to end well for him and essentially the revolutionaries have said France is now Republic all while they're at war with two major powers with the Austrians and the Prussian now the they are eventually able to hold off they are able to eventually hold off and I'll tell you say damned I'm talking with the armies of France they are eventually able to hold off the invading Prussian army they call it the stalemate of Omni not not clear who won the Prussians weren't that eager to go into France so they kind of just you know they didn't push too hard or send too many more troops so for at least temporarily the external threat was diffused if you want to call it that way and so the National Assembly went forth and said they got rid of I mean they had already declared a republic but they went even further so this is now we're in September we're in September of 1792 you had the stalemate at vol me stalemate at balmy capitalize that balmy and then the National Assembly or the National Convention said hey we're going to make create a new constitution so that constitution of 1791 did not last too long it lasted about a year so new constitution the intent to create a new constitution now while all that said this you know this this bloodshed that we saw as after they imprisoned louis xvi these kind of riots in paris and these arbitrary killings this is just a foreshadowing of much worse that's going to come in the very next year by 1793 1793 let me write this down in a bloody color so 1793 were in now so the National Assembly they the first thing that they do or maybe I should say even more particular in January of 1793 so we're in January right now remember they've already deposed the king they have them imprisoned where they're at war with these other countries that have stated the intention to put the King back into power so the first thing they do is they execute execute Louis Louie the sixteenth and this is a picture of the execution he was guillotined and this right here is doctor guillotine and it was actually invented this right here is the guillotine that right there is the guillotine and it was actually invented as a more humane way to kill people that they at the time they said hey you know it's very it's very we when we kill people it's not for them to feel pain it's more to just kill them so we use this very humane instrument called the guillotine where you use a blade to very quickly chop off someone's head and it was invented by this physician right here but the one of the first people that got to you know Fortin people they got to try it out was louis xvi guillotined in january and then in february remember i mean people are still going hungry that they're still eager to spread the revolution they still want to plunder other other countries so in February in February the National Assembly or the National Council of the Revolutionary Government declares war on Britain war on Britain and the Dutch Republic and Dutch let me not write I don't you don't know who this is you I'm going to tell you in a second and Dutch Republic now you're probably saying gee you know how does France you know this one country right here how does France right here how is it able to have war against Austria Prussia now declaring war against the Dutch in Great Britain and actually the month before Spain and Portugal had declared war had kind of jumped in on the side of Austrian Prussia so how does this one country France how does this one Revolutionary Government fend itself off against the armies of so many nations and the answer to that is that the Revolutionary Government declared in February what they called the levy and mass and I'm not French so I'm saying it wrong I'm sure the levy in mass which was essentially the first version of what we now call the draft and they were able to actually they actually said every able-bodied young man in France who was unmarried will now be in the army and so they were able to immediately raise several hundreds of thousands of soldiers and actually within a couple of years they were approaching there's several accounts of it but it might have been you know over 1 million plus soldiers which is very different from how many of these other kingdoms would raise their armies they would pay salaries to professional soldiers so these at the time were smaller armies than what France was able to muster up through the Revolutionary Government saying look this is a government for the people by the people so now you're not fighting for a king you're fighting for yourself you're fighting for your own representation so you don't get did by foreign kings so everyone jumped in the war effort so they essentially had the largest army in Europe but I keep repeating all of this was in the context of you know unrest throughout France there were Royalists out there wanting to be counter revolutionaries people were going hungry so to kind of I guess clamp down on things in in April of 1792 so now we're in April the National Assembly they create the Committee of Public Safety which sounds like a very nice committee so Committee of Public Safety so public safety and they essentially become the default government or we could say the de facto the de facto government and it was put into control of this nice-looking gentleman right here maximilian robes pierre seems like a very civilized fellow maximilian robes pierre but really what the public what the what the Committee of Public Safety was good at was being hugely political hugely paranoid and under especially this you know maximilien robespierre is control who was especially paranoid anyone if they just caught a whiff of someone being not radical enough or or maybe too radical or someone I just didn't like or someone who might help depose me they just started getting people so this is really the start of the reign of terror the reign of terror so over the next roughly over the next year over although on the order of give or take 16 thousand people are guillotined they go to dr. guillotines humane invention and oh and and there are only estimates of this there wasn't good accounting of this but it's believed that as many as 40,000 people were some early executed which essentially means you're guilty of this I know you're guilty hey you over there with the gun please shoot this person for me so this was an extremely bloody time in just so you imagine I mean most of this was occurring in and around Paris so all of a sudden in one little city I mean it was a major city but you have tens of thousands of people being massacred just in just if this guy or the people who are plotting with this guy or the people were plotting against this guy thought or caught a whiff of you being not completely loyal to the revolution now eventually people be eventually got suspicious of maximilien robespierre they're saying hey while your paranoia is hurting the revolution more than helping it so then in the thermidorian reaction which sounds very I know it sounds like it's some type of a a a refrigerator heater so thermidorian Dorian reaction now this right here this is in July this is in July of 1794 it's called the thermidorian reaction I might do a whole video on this because the revolution the revolution of government extricated a new calendar where they renamed the month thermador was essentially July it was shifted a little bit and actually changed the number of hours in the day they would have 10 hours a day hundred minutes an hour 100 seconds a minute they would have three 10-day weeks per month so they had this whole calendar but Thermidor was the month of July so it was really the July reaction where people got sick of maximilien robespierre so in 1794 July 1794 he - so what goes around comes around so this right here is this is 1794 July this right here is this nice-looking gentleman and he too gets guillotined now there's two other things that I want to point out I'll take a few steps back back into 1793 just as a maybe of a bit of a footnote we saw that in january louis xvi was executed on for a for I guess you know depending on your opinion whether it was a good or a bad thing in October in October October Marie Antoinette also executed Marie and Toinette so this is in 1793 also executed so nine months after her husband executed and then as one kind of small footnote at this point as you can imagine and all of all of France was in unrest at the time and then in 1793 there was a revolt this is in July of 1793 so it's a year before the end of the reign of terror really during the reign of terror in the port of Toulon there was a revolt against the Revolutionary Government and it was put down mainly with the help of a aspiring artillery captain artillery captain to someone who's essentially in charge in charge of the cannons and that artillery cannon a captain who was able to help put down that revolt and get a lot of I guess cred with the Revolutionary Government his name was I need to write it someplace nice and new and this is foreshadowing of the next video but so in July of 1793 in Toulon a new artillery captain started to look like he really knows what he's doing and his name is Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte and he's going to have a lot to do with the next video