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Current time:0:00Total duration:14:51

Video transcript

we left off the last video at the end of 1789 the Bastille had been stormed in July as Parisians wanted to get the weapons from the best deal and free a few political prisoners to in their minds protect themselves from any tyranny from louis xvi louis xvi had reluctantly kind of you know gone buying it behind the scenes and said okay national assembly i'm not going to get in your way anymore because he's seen the writing on the walls at every time he's done something it's only led to even more extreme counter action so we have this where at the end of 1789 already chaos has broken loose and a lot of France the National Assembly they're they're in process of creating a constitution which won't happen until fully happen until 1791 but they're starting to bring things together in order to draft that constitution but in August of 1789 they've already done their version of the Declaration of Independence the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen so if this was if everything was well we would just wait until you know a few years we'd get a constitution and maybe we'll have some type of a constitutional monarchy but unfortunate for especially for the for louis xvi things weren't all well as we mentioned all of this was propagated all this was started to begin with because people were hungry we have this fiscal crisis we have a famine and so in october october of 1789 were still in 1789 october of 1789 rumors got started to spread that marie antoinette the King's wife that she was hoarding grain at Versailles so you know there's people started ad imagining these big stacks of grain at Versailles and this isn't a time where people couldn't get their bread and bread was the main staple of the diet so there was actually a march of peasant women on to Versailles and they were armed this is a depiction of the peasant women marching on Versailles and they went to Versailles and actually were able to get into the building itself and they demanded because they were suspicious of what louis xvi and marie antoinette were up to adverse they demanded that they move back or not move back that they moved to Paris so the women's March women's March it resulted in and and they were able to get their demands it resulted in louis xvi and wife marie antoinette moving back to paris moving back to paris where they couldn't do things like hoard grain and where they'll be surrounded by all of the maybe not so friendly people who could watch what they're doing and there's also this was also precipitated not you know I think the main factor was that people are hungry rumors are spreading that the king is hoarding grain but there's also rumors that the king was being very disrespectful to some of the some of the symbols of the new France of the of the new national assembly so that also made people angry and across the board everyone kind of knew that and including louis xvi that he wasn't really into what was going on he wasn't into this kind of constitutional monarchy that was forming this power that was being lost to the national assembly so we have this very uncomfortable situation entering into 1790 where the the the king and queen are essentially in house arrest in in a building called the Tuileries in paris you have this National Assembly drafting this constitution they're they're chartered to draft the Constitution up there they all they all pledged to the Tennis Court Oath and at the same time throughout France you have some counterinsurgency so this is France right here throughout France you have counterinsurgencies people who don't like the the revolution that's going on and then those would be subdued and people are all plotting one against each other and then you have some nobility that says gee you know what I don't like the way that this is going we've seen already a lot of violence people are angry I'm just going to take my money and whatever I can pack and I'm just going to get out of the country I'm going to emigrate away from the country so you start having nobility starting to leave France they're called the emigres I know I know I'm not pronouncing it correctly but you see it you have this notion of gee if I had it good in France I'm not going to have good much longer I better leave and this same idea now that we get to 1791 so 1790 was just kind of a bunch of unease now there were at 1791 the same idea of trying to get away from the danger got into the heads of Louis the sixteenth and Marie Antoinette but they couldn't leave the country they didn't trust they didn't trust Great Britain they didn't trust any of these other countries to safely give them shelter so they one of their generals who was sympathetic to their cause said hey at least come here to my to the frontier areas and you can hide from all of the unrest that's going on so dressed as dressed as actual servants and they actually made their you know shows you what type of people they were they dressed as servants so they dressed as dressed as servants and they actually made their servants dressed as a nobility to make them the targets in case they were they were ambushed anyway on their on their way trying to escape from Paris dress disturbance the king and queen the king tried to escape to this generals estate but when they were in Varennes right here they were actually spotted and then the people essentially took them captive and brought them back to Paris so this is called Niall you could do this is you could imagine it as the the flight to Varennes or the flight away from Paris or however you want to do it so already they the louis xvi started to see the writing on the wall they tried to get away but people brought them back now you could imagine a lot of people already did not like the king they didn't like the notion of even having a kin a king and the most revolutionary the most radical elements were called the jacobins the jacobins and after the king and queen tried to escape and came back they're like hey gee what's the use of even having a king you National Assembly why are you even trying to write some type of Constitution that gives any power whatsoever to a king we should have a republic we should have a republic Republic which is essentially there's a lot of kind of nuanced definitions whatever public is but the most simple one is it's a date without a king without an emperor without a queen so saying we don't need you no you National Assembly you think you're being radical but you're not being radical enough we want to eliminate the idea of having a monarchy all together and the fact that these that the monarch that that louis xvi actually tried to run away we view that as him abdicating the throne abdication or essentially quitting abdication of throne and they actually started to organize in paris this right here this right here is the shop's de mars i know i'm saying it completely wrong so this this is a current picture of it chomp-chomp de mars and so they started picking signatures in this kind of public park in paris to essentially say we don't need a king we want to essentially create our own republic that these National Assembly they're not radical enough and so people started you know they started gathering over here and the Shump de mars and things got a little ugly so the actual the actual troops were sent in to kind of calm everyone down and these were actually troops controlled by the National Assembly the people you know the the people who are mainly controlled by the Third Estate but things got a little crazy throw rocks were thrown at some of the troops some of the troops at first they started firing the air but eventually when things got really crazy they fired into the crowd and about 50 people died and this was the massacre the massacre or the shop's Dick Schaap de Mars massacre I know I'm saying it comply my friends this isn't a video on French pronunciation but you can imagine how people are even angrier the King you know people are still starving that problem has not gone away the king and queen has been kind of very reluctantly everyone's suspicious of the fact that they're probably going to try to come back to power they tried to run away when the jacobins or in general kind of revolutionaries but they're led by the jacobins when they start to suggest that hey we should have a republic we shouldn't even have a king and they gather people here all of a sudden the troops that are controlled by the current National Assembly actually fire on the crowd and actually kill civilians for throwing rocks and they might have been big rocks but you could imagine this is going to anger already hungry and already suppressed people even more and to make people even more paranoid that the king and queen might eventually come back to power you had two major powers all of a sudden trying to insert themselves into the French Revolution I'm going to do a little bit of a side here because this is something at least you know when I first learned European history I found the most confusing you have these these states you can call them you have Austria which I've which I've highlighted in orange the the kind of map here is the modern map but in orange I've kind of shown what Austria was at that point in time around 1789 1790 1791 in this red color I have Prussia I want to show you that these are very different than our current notions of one Austria Austria today is this modern country right here and Prussia doesn't even exist as a modern country and then you had this notion of the Holy Roman Empire which overlaps with these other kingdoms or empires or whatever you want to call them and I want to do a little bit of a of a side here the Holy Roman Empire is Voltaire famously said is neither holy let me write that in is neither holy nor Roman nor an empire and he was right it was really kind of a very loose confederation of German kingdoms and States mainly German Kingdom states as you could see it kind of coincides with modern Germany and the two most influential powers in the Holy Roman Empire or that were kind of well actually the most influential power in the holy ramp Holy Roman Empire was the Austrian and the ruler of the Austrians had the title of Holy Roman Emperor and that was Leopold the second so Leopold Leopold the second was the Holy Roman Emperor but it's not it's not like he was like the roman emperors of old with roman emperors of old actually came out of rome notice nothing nothing nothing in the Holy Roman Empire at that time had no control of Rome so it was not Roman we're not talking about people who speak spoke Latin we're talking about people who spoke Germanic languages and it wasn't an empire that it wasn't a tightly knit kind of governance structure that it was this loose confederation of states but what the most influential was the was the was the region that was under control of the Habsburgs of Austria or leopold ii and not only was he in control or without it he had the title of holy role of empire and essentially had control of the austrian i guess you could say empire at that point in time he was also marie antoinette's brother he was also marie antoinette's brother Leopold a second that's that's her brother so leopold ii and frederick william ii of prussia which is another mainly germanic state so let me do that in a better color so frederick william ii they issued the declaration of pillnitz let me write this down so this is going to add even more insult to injury to just the doubt the general population of france the declaration of pillnitz let me write it here declaration declaration of pillnitz and this was done in august so i just want to make it very clear what happened in june of 1791 they tried to escape they were captured at Varenne then in july of 1791 you have the sharp DeMars massacre so already people are very wary of the royals the idea that we don't need them is is spreading and people are getting angrier and then you have the declaration of pillnitz by these foreign powers one of whom is essentially the brother of the current french royalty and that declaration is essentially saying that they intend to bring the the French monarchy back to power that they don't say that they're definitely going to do it in military terms or whatever but it's a declaration that they do not approve of what's going on in France and even though they themselves might have not taken it too seriously the people of France took it really seriously you have these huge powers on their on their border right here you had the Austrians you had the Austrians and the Prussians so this wasn't anything that you know people people could take very lightly so it only increased the fear that the Royals were going to do something to come back to full power and really suppress people and it really gave even more fuel for the Jacobins to kind of argue for some type of republic so I'm going to leave you there in this video as you can see you know what we saw in the first video things got bad now they're getting really worse chaos is breaking out in France people are questioning whether they even need a king or queen foreign powers are getting involved saying that they hey we they don't like what they're seeing there with kings and queens getting overthrown maybe that'll give ideas to their people and by the way I'm your I'm your brother so I want to help you out too that scares people even more the current National Assembly which is kind of the beginning of the revolution they themselves are on some level massacring people so it's really leading to really tense and ugly time in French history and you're going to see that that's going to culminate with what's called the reign of terror and we're going to see that in the next video