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WATCH: Frames in Unit 5

The rise of industrialized empires in the Long Nineteenth Century seems to contradict the stories we have told so far through all three frames. Wasn’t political liberalism supposed to end empire and bring political equality? Wasn’t the industrial revolution supposed to promote free labor? Weren’t reformers fighting to end inequality? So, was empire an exception to the general way of things in this era, or an example of the limits and contradictions of all these revolutions?

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Video transcript