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Current time:0:00Total duration:14:46

Video transcript

we finished off the last video entering into the Great Depression it wasn't just a depression for the u.s. it was a depression for the world but I want to back up a little bit because I forgot to mention a very important fact that's hugely important to the rest of us history in the twentieth century and that's what happened in 1917 actually during World War one and that's the Bolshevik Revolution the Russian Empire was overthrown by the Bolsheviks and it became the Soviet Union and it which you probably know was a communist state and it became the United States arch enemy over the rest of well not over the rest of but after nearly I guess the second half of the 20th century so with that out of the way I just want to make sure you know that Russia is now the Soviet Union let's fast-forward back through the Great Depression and probably the one point when we're doing this very high-level overview that's of interest and as you can see even though the focus of this series of videos is on US interest what's happening in the rest of the world starting to become much more important because the u.s. is starting to become this really serious global actor and so in 1933 so this is right in the middle right in the middle of this global depression and Germany was especially hit hard especially because of all the damage done by World War one and the war reparations and all the rest you have Hitler coming to power as Chancellor of Germany and it's interesting to note that it was actually he came to power in a democratic process Chancellor of Germany is analogous to prime minister of other countries and so essentially he was ruling a coalition his the Nazis his party did not have the majority but they were able to control this coalition although it was a very weak one but what they were good at is intimidating and rigging elections and all the rest and so over the course of the rest of the 30s essentially the Nazis consolidated power until we get to 1939 and the rest of the world was you know they would kind of watch Hitler he was consolidating power Turnagain he came in democratically but he was essentially consolidating power under himself turning it into a dictatorship he was militarizing Germany people started to get concerned but they all kind of wanted to they had the doctrine of appeasement hey you know let's just let's just kind of you know not two angry and maybe he won't start anything too bad but in 1939 Germany invades Poland invades Poland this is kind of viewed as the one event that the kind of the straw that breaks the camel's back so to speak and so it begins World War two so this is the beginning of World War two and initially it's between I guess the if you think about the great powers that initially get involved it is the British Empire and the Soviet Union France is involved it quickly gets overrun by the Nazis and what happens is is that the US for it wasn't like the situation with World War one where the u.s. was trying to stay neutral the US had recognized especially FDR Franklin Delano Roosevelt he had recognized that Hitler that Hitler was an aggressor that he was I guess from from FDR's part of you definitely in the wrong here so even from the beginning of World War two the u.s. did help support did help support the Allies support the Allies so it would send arms and any other type of assistance when Japan and Italy joined on the side of Germany the u.s. embargoed oil to Japan the u.s. was an exporter of oil to Japan and you could imagine Japan did not produce a lot of its own oil and oil is super important when you're trying to run a war machine so that didn't make Japan too happy so you fast forward to 1941 and you have Japan bombing Pearl Harbor so until this point us kind of played a an on direct role it definitely supported the Allies it did what it could echo na mcclee and by providing military aid but did not actively participate in the fighting but then December 7th 1941 the Japanese bomb our bombed the US the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor and that's that whole interesting debate because or discussion because it was lucky for the u.s. that most a lot of the Pacific Fleet was not there but it was obviously this kind of this thing that would that convinced the US public that it was that World War two was worth joining so in 1941 because of Pearl Harbor the u.s. enters the war and it enters the war in both arenas both in Europe and in the Pacific and then you fast forward it goes against the Italians in North Africa and then you fast forward to 1944 it actually enters it actually enters into the fight in mainland Europe this is the invasion of Normandy this is d-day June 6 1944 if you've ever seen Saving Private Ryan it starts with this and it's probably you know I've never been in a I've never stormed a beach but I can imagine that's probably the the most realistic reenactment of what it was like to storm the beach at Normandy but you fast forward to 1945 and eventually the the especially between the Soviet and the US or I should say all of the Allied forces they were able to I guess win the European front of world war two and and then you fast forward till the end of that year Japan was still kind of fighting pretty ferociously and so the US and you know this is once again I could make many videos of this we can debate the ethical implications of this but the u.s. it develops the atomic bomb ignites one over Hiroshima and then a few days later one over Nagasaki and that essentially ends World War two and so the outcome of World War two is you have two remaining superpowers you have the Soviet Union you have the Soviet Union and you have the United States and what happens after that is that you have the Cold War these two huge powers the Soviet Union is this is this communist country it's obviously trying to create this communist fear of influence a lot of Eastern Europe was falling under Soviet sway the United States not a communist country a very capitalist country you can imagine and this is something that gets confused a lot the Soviet Union was communist and it was totalitarian communism and democracy aren't necessarily things that go against each other but the Soviet Union had had neither a capitalist system nor democracy was it was both communist and totalitarian and when I when I say communist I'm talking about no private wealth the state really owned all resources the United States on the hand other hand was hugely capitalist and you could imagine many people the United States did not want any of this communism business to kind of come come to us so you have this major battle that never really erupts into direct conflict between the Soviet Union United States it's always done through through proxies through people who that the United States or the Soviet Union is acting on the behalf or who are acting on the behalf of the United States or Soviet Union but you have the Cold War beginning and it's called the Cold War because it wasn't a hot war the United States and the Soviet Union never really fired bullets at each other instead they supported they supported other parties that would fire bullets at the Soviet Union or the Soviet Union would support other parties that would fire bullets at the United States and for the United States it was all about stopping communism it was all about preventing you know this domino theory that if one country in a region would fall to communism that other countries would so the United States became a bit paranoid or maybe it was justified either way it was very concerned about the spread of communism and the first time that this really gets tested in 1950 is an interesting year because this is the first time obviously the u.s. had nuclear weapons as of 1945 but in 1950 the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon so now the Cold War is trying to get very serious both of these adversaries can now nuke each other if they wanted to and also in 1950 you have Korea and Korea before World War two so that's a very small depiction of Korea it was a Japanese colony but obviously Japan had now lost and so after World War two it was split between an area North Korea which was influenced by the Russians and South Korea which was influenced by the United States and it was split along the 38th parallel I know this is a super small diagram we'll go into more detail when we do detailed videos about the Korean War but in 1950 you have the North Koreans invaded the south so it started the Korean War the u.s. sent troops the North Koreans had China on their side the Chinese army the Soviets were also supplying them but at the end of the day in 1943 you fast-forward it ends up being a little bit of a stalemate because the end result was is that the original 38th parallel border gets I guess reinstated but that was the first real conflict of Cold War and notice there were never US or Russian or I shouldn't say Russian US or Soviet troops directly firing at each other the people who are the US were firing were at war with the North Korean and the Chinese troops but they were kind of proxies for the Soviet Union and at the same time as you can imagine because you have these two adversaries these two technically sophisticated adversaries they both had they both had nuclear weapons it became very interesting on who can kind of dominate space so you have this kind of space race developing in 1957 the Soviets are able to are able to launch the first artificial satellite around the earth this is Sputnik one over here Sputnik one some people think the first Sputnik is the one that had the dog in it no that came a few months later that was Sputnik two actually had the picture of the dog here but the dog eventually dies but it was alive for a little bit in orbit so that gets everyone freaked out the u.s. responds that in 1961 you have Yuri Gagarin he's the first person in space first human being in space he returns safely we eventually get up there or the United States eventually gets up there as well and then you fast forward all the way to 1969 the u.s. is the first to be on the moon so you have the space race that's you know the two countries are really trying to one-up each other and at the same time that that's happening you have and I bring this up just because so much happened during his presidency in 1960 you have John F Kennedy you have John F Kennedy being elected kind of in the heart the heart of the Cold War not you know the other interesting thing is he was the first Catholic president which was you know people questioned whether well it that by itself was interesting but was really interesting in his short presidency and I think you might know that he only had really it he actually became president in 61 this is an error he was elected in 60 but he became president in 61 he had a very short presidency was assassinated in 63 but a lot happened in that short presidency in 1957 right before he became president you had oh sorry not 1957 let me get my years right in 1959 you had the Cuban Revolution Cuba became communist Fidel Castro takes over it becomes communist so you can imagine the the Americans didn't like a communist state so close to our own borders so in nineteen in 1961 we support some X Cubans or some some Cuban exiles to try to invade Cuba and that also can be a whole topic for another video in what you know there's debates between the CIA and the Kennedy administration of who was to blame for it being such a failure but it was a failure so it was a huge embarrassment to the United States and total and and from the the revolutionaries point of view I should you know the communist revolutionaries point of view they kind of viewed this as solidifying their hold of Cuba showed that they could they could fend off counterfeiting and then you have in 1962 we have these spy planes and we see that the Soviets are starting to put these ballistic missiles in Cuba which really freaks the United States out because these ballistic missiles could reach any part of the United States we actually had similar ones in parts of Europe and Turkey but we didn't like these things here so we essentially use our Navy to I would say blockade the anymore arms shipments to the Soviet Union so Kennedy really has this kind of standoff with the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 and most people believe that this was the closest that the United States and the Soviet Union ever got to actually having a war and which would probably turned into a nuclear war but the standoff of n chily got resolved the the Soviet Union agreed to remove their missiles well one not send any more missiles and dismantled the ones that they had already set up and and this wasn't publicly stated at the time but the United States also agreed to do the same thing for our missiles that were pointed at the Soviet Union to remove those from Turkey so the world kind of at least you know at that point in time had avoided kind of a mutually assured destruction the whole time that this is happening remember the United States is paranoid and maybe justifiably so paranoia usually means worried when there's not a cause but maybe justifiably worried about the spread of communism you have a situation where in Vietnam you have a Vietnam which is right about right about let me make sure I get me circle the right country you have in Vietnam you have the Communists come to power in North Vietnam this was formerly a French colony the US right from the get-go in 1950 starts sending advisers to aid the the anti communists in South Vietnam in Kennedy's administration the amount of advisors and I should probably put that in quotes because these advisors started becoming much more involved really grew and until in 1965 the United States started sending its actual you know official combat troops to fight in Vietnam and you fast forward that all the way to 1975 and the reason why this is significant other than this being the one of the more recent major Wars the United States has been in it's the first war that the United States kind of unambiguously lost in 1975 the last the last the last presence of the United States left and essentially Saigon which was the capital of South Vietnam fell to the Communists so I'll leave you there and we're now essentially in modern history you know at least at least from my point of view because I was born not too long after that anyway hopefully you found that interesting let me oh I couldn't found the stop button there you go