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French and Dutch colonization

AP.USH:
KC‑2.1.I.B (KC)
,
MIG (Theme)
,
Unit 2: Learning Objective B
In the 1600s, French and Dutch settlers in North America took a very different approach to colonization than their English or Spanish counterparts. In this video, Kim examines the trading relationships that French and Dutch settlers established with Native Americans in North America and how colonial goals affected patterns of settlement.

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  • duskpin seedling style avatar for user patiw0007
    Didn't the Treaty of Tordesillas (and the line of demarcation) prohibit other nations from exploring the Americas? Wasn't the whole American territory claimed for the Spanish by this treaty?
    (14 votes)
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    • piceratops tree style avatar for user Andre de Bruin
      The line drawn by the Pope would prohibit France from settling south america, but Spain and Portugal did not care much about the north area where France was would be my best guess. Also, the line of demarcation did not apply to the Dutch or the English since they were Protestant, and did not believe in the Pope, essentially they did not care what the Roman church said.
      (19 votes)
  • aqualine ultimate style avatar for user Manomay Shravage
    In my view, Spain made a mistake. They chose to use violence against the native Americans instead of taking the better route of befriending them. Didn't Spanish Colonizers understand that they would benefit more if they prevented having conflicts with the natives? Or were they so focused on the three G's, that they were ready to use any means necessary?
    (6 votes)
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    • blobby green style avatar for user Seva Zaikov
      Maybe yes, but maybe not. While they did a lot of atrocities, they profited greatly from it, and it helped them a lot at the moment.

      I am also not sure how friendly natives would be after dying in droves from European diseases, they might turn aggressive.

      Now, I am not justifying any of their actions, just want to say that it is impossible to say what would've happened.
      (2 votes)
  • starky ultimate style avatar for user Karissa Mann
    I know that Sweden also attempted to colonize an area near Delaware for a time and also gave/surrendered it to the English like the Dutch. Were Swedish settlers also motivated by trade?
    (1 vote)
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    • aqualine tree style avatar for user David Alexander
      Here it is from wikipedia.
      By the middle of the 17th century, the Swedish Empire had reached its greatest territorial extent. The Swedes sought to extend their influence by creating an agricultural (tobacco) and fur trading colony to bypass French, British and Dutch merchants. The charter included Swedish, Dutch and German stockholders. Once they landed they established Fort Christina (now Wilmington, Delaware), named after Queen Christina of Sweden. Many of the settlers were Finnish, since until 1809 the area of modern Finland was the eastern third of the kingdom of Sweden.

      The settlement was actually an invasion of New Netherland since it was Dutch territory. The founder and first governor, Peter Minuit, had been Director-General of New Netherland from 1626 to 1633. Disgruntled after being dismissed from his post, he led a Swedish expedition to a location which he knew to be strategic as well as a thorn in the side of his former employers. Minuit died on a return trip from Stockholm in a hurricane near the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. The colony would establish Fort Nya Elfsborg north of present-day Salem, New Jersey in 1643.

      In May 1654 the Dutch Fort Casimir, located in present-day New Castle, Delaware was captured by New Sweden. As a reprisal, the Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant sent an army to the Delaware River, which obtained the surrender of the Swedish forts.
      (7 votes)
  • hopper cool style avatar for user Anthony Kim
    또한 영국인에게 비버 모피가 필요한 이유는 무엇입니까?
    (2 votes)
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    • leaf blue style avatar for user Yohan Lee
      안녕하세요~ 간략하게 모피 무역(fur trade)에 대해서 설명해드릴께요 길지만 읽어보세요. 일단은 비버는 물에서 생활했기에 비버의 털은 윤기가 흐르고 촘촘하고 따뜻하고 방수가 잘되어 당시 서양 사람들에게 인기가 많았었습니다. 당시 인기가 너무 많아 유럽 아시아에 사는 유럽 비버는 밀렵으로 인한 멸종위기에 처했지요. 그로 인해 비버 모피의 가격은 아주 비쌋던 상태죠. 일단은 프랑스와 더치(네덜란드) 사람들은 초기에 정착이 아닌 무역을 위하여 왔기에 영국인들 보다는 팔 물건들을 구하기 위하여 열정적으로 활동했지요. 다시 유럽으로 가서 물건들을 팔아야했으니까요. 거기서 눈에 들어온것들중 하나가 비버 모피였지요. 비버 모피가 미국 역사를 좀 바꿨다고도 하는 학자들이 있지요. 당시 뉴암스테르담(현 뉴욕)은 항구 역할을하며 허드슨 강 줄기를 배타고 오가는 상인들로 붐볐습니다 허드슨 강이 미국 내륙으로 가는 고속도로가 된거죠. 더치인들이 정착한 허드슨 강은 비버 개체수가 상당히 많은 상태였고 돈을 빨리 벌기에는 비버 모피가 딱 최적화였습니다. 유럽인들은 모피를 구하기위해 원주민들과 교류도하고 직접 잡거나 사람을 고용하기도하였습니다. 더치와 프랑스인들끼리 모피를 서로 더 차지하기 위해 분쟁도 있었고 그분쟁을 없애기 위하여 따로 사냥할수있는 구역을 나누기도 하였습니다. 비버 모피와 가죽은 의류 세부 장식,목도리,신발,코트,가방,모자 Etc...에 사용되었습니다.
      비버말고도 여우,토끼,담비,수달,곰,늑대 etc...모피가 인기 많았습니다. 긴글 읽어주셔서 감사합니다:)
      (5 votes)
  • blobby green style avatar for user Isha Vazirani
    how did the Dutch make hats for winter if they did not find enough beaver
    (2 votes)
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  • leaf green style avatar for user Isaac D. Cohen
    What happened to the treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing up the world between them? How did this leave room for France and Holland to colonize in the Americas?
    (5 votes)
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  • duskpin ultimate style avatar for user Ginny  Page
    Why were the French and Dutch less likely to use force to get what they wanted than the Spaniards? Was it because the Spanish were stronger? Or was it because they had different goals?
    (2 votes)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user 24annaleise.hanson
    Was this part of the reason why Latin America even today has such a prevalent presence of Christianity and catholic .
    (2 votes)
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  • piceratops seedling style avatar for user diego.espinozabar.1
    Hola ~ Te explicaré brevemente el comercio de pieles, es largo pero léelo. En primer lugar, debido a que los castores vivían en el agua, su pelaje era brillante, denso, cálido e impermeable, por lo que era popular entre los occidentales en ese momento. Era tan popular en ese momento que el castor europeo que vivía en Europa y Asia estaba al borde de la extinción debido a la caza furtiva. Como resultado, el precio de la piel de castor es muy caro. En primer lugar, los franceses y los holandeses (Países Bajos) vinieron aquí para comerciar en lugar de establecerse en los primeros días, por lo que trabajaron con más pasión para encontrar cosas para vender que los británicos. Tuve que volver a Europa y vender cosas. Una de las cosas que me llamó la atención fue la piel de castor. Algunos estudiosos incluso dicen que la piel de castor cambió la historia de Estados Unidos. En ese momento, Nueva Amsterdam (ahora Nueva York) servía como puerto y estaba llena de comerciantes que navegaban a lo largo de las orillas del río Hudson, que se convirtió en la autopista hacia el interior de los Estados Unidos. El río Hudson, donde se asentaron los holandeses, tenía una población bastante grande de castores, y la piel del castor era perfecta para ganar dinero rápidamente. Para las pieles, los europeos interactuaban con los nativos, los atrapaban ellos mismos o contrataban gente. Hubo una disputa entre holandeses y franceses por más pieles. Se utilizaron pieles de castor y cuero para detalles de prendas, chales, zapatos, abrigos, bolsos, sombreros, etc.
    Además de castores, zorros, conejos, martas, nutrias, osos, lobos, etc ... las pieles eran populares. Gracias por leer esta larga publicación.;)
    (1 vote)
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  • winston default style avatar for user Liam McDonnell
    Is there any evidence of European colonists encouraging the various Native American nations to form peaceful trade relationships with each other?
    (1 vote)
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Video transcript

- [Narrator] Although the Spanish were the first European colonists in the New World, they didn't remain alone in the Americas for very long. Just three years after Hernan Cortes captured Tenochtitlan, the French government sent its first explorer to poke around North America and look for what many European explorers had searched for from the beginning, a passage to the East. Now, although the explorers never found this Northwest passage because it didn't exist, they, like the Spanish, quickly learned that there were quite a lot of riches to be had in the Americas themselves. In this video, I'd like to take some time to talk about two of the lesser known European colonies in the New World, New France up here in pink and New Netherland, this little orange dot right here. Now, you can see that compared to the extent of New Spain, here in the Caribbean and Mexico and expanding in South America, these colonial exploits were pretty small indeed, but I think it's important to learn a little bit about them because they help us see the ways in which the different goals of colonial powers led to very different types of settlement in the New World and very different relationships between Europeans and Native Americans. Now, though it's a little bit hard to see on this map, these two colonies focused their efforts around two rivers, the Saint Lawrence River and the Hudson River which runs along this little orange strip here. And along these rivers, you can still see the cities that were founded by these colonial ventures like Quebec City up in Canada, later Montreal and down here of course the most famous which started as New Amsterdam and later became the city of New York. Right about here is the Island of Manhattan on which New York City, formerly New Amsterdam, is located. Now, looking at this map, you might wonder, why was it that Spain have these giant swabs of territory really from coast to coast where New France and New Netherland really only followed along these rivers, at least to start with? And the answer really lies in this idea of goals. And New France and New Netherland sat on the rivers, rivers being the highways of the world really up until the invention of the railroad, because they were primarily interested in trade. So let's talk a little bit more about that. French and Dutch explorers were particularly interested in gaining valuable furs to trade from Native Americans living in the Northern part of North America that they could then sell in Europe. Long before European colonization began, beavers had been hunted pretty much to extinction in Europe while beaver pelts themselves were usually used to create fancy hats. This is a hat from a slightly later era, but you can get the sense here that Europeans met on something of an equal basis with Native Americans in the process of the fur trade, so Europeans wanted beaver pelts and also the pelts of other animals and often fish, another thing that was in great supply in this Northern region which is today the Northeast United States and Canada. So how did this focus on trade affect the relationships between Europeans and Native Americans in the area? Well, primarily they made relationships between them considerably friendlier and more cooperative than the relationships between the Spanish and Native Americans for example. Now, Europeans quickly discovered that it made a lot more sense to instead of sending hundreds upon hundreds of Frenchmen to Canada to hunt beavers themselves, they could instead pay Native Americans to hunt the beavers for them. And consequently, there were considerably fewer French and Dutch settlers in New Netherland and New France than there were in New Spain. And because there were fewer of them, they generally ended up doing things more on the terms of Native Americans so whereas the Spanish might have used their guns and their war dogs to force Native Americans to labor for them, the French and the Dutch were more likely to observe trading rituals like giving gifts and also fostering trade relationships through intermarriage. French traders learned the Algonquian language and married native women and had children with them so that they could be considered part of the family. They even allied with Native American Tribes against their own enemies and went to war with them as in the case in 1609 when French explorer Samuel de Champlain helped Algonquians in their war against the Iroquois. And like New France, New Netherland situated as it was in this very good harbor, the Island of Manhattan, was likewise very focused on trade. In fact, New Amsterdam was a little bit of a company town controlled by the Dutch West India Company which sought to make the most of all of the goodies that could be brought from North America and then shipped to Europe. In fact, you can get a sense of what the major concerns of the Europeans settling in this area were from this map. You can see that they point out where beavers, turkeys, foxes, and bears can be found all with their valuable pelts, but you also see that there's an extremely detailed rendering of where many Native American Tribes lived like this detailed rendering of what I believe is a Mahican village. The French and Dutch bothered to learn all of these names and map all of this territory because they cooperated with the Native Americans to get these pelts. It's hard to imagine a Spanish map that would go into such detail about native villages. It's important to remember that Europeans were competing with each other for resources in the New World hoping that they could secure the best trade deals for furs with Native Americans and prevent other nations from securing those furs. For example, the Dutch allied with the Iroquois in the New World as trading partners because the Iroquois were the long-time enemies of the Algonquians who were allied with the French. So just as the Europeans recruited Native Americans into their competitions to supply Europe with furs, Native Americans recruited Europeans into their inter-tribal feuds to supply the Americas with European goods. I wanna finish by just briefly comparing each nation's colonial goals with their outcomes and what sorts of people settled, what the relationships were like with Native Americans, and even how they attempted or didn't attempt to convert Native Americans to a form of Christianity. Now, as we saw with Spain, their goal was to quickly extract natural resources from the Americas and to set up plantations for tobacco and later sugar, plus to convert as many of the native people to Catholicism as possible by force if necessary and it was frequently necessary. Consequently, most of the Spanish settlers who came to the New World were men and adventurers who treated native people with violence and enslaved them in the encomienda system and in some cases had relationships with native women and African women that resulted in that very complex set of racial designations we see in the caste system. But France and the Netherlands by contrast came for trade. They wanted furs and fish and so they were very careful to cultivate very friendly relationships with Native Americans including by intermarrying with them in a deliberate and formal way so that they could take advantage of having natives do the hunting for them rather than having to do it themselves so that really only a few men came to New France and New Netherland, nothing like the numbers of Spain. And unlike the Spanish, although the French did attempt to convert natives to Catholicism, they rarely did so by force. Now, going forward as we talk about British colonization in the next few lessons, I want you to keep both the Spanish and the French and Dutch modes of colonization in your mind so you can compare and contrast English colonization with both of them. And as we'll see, the goals of the various English colonies whether it's to found plantations like in Jamestown, Virginia, or to escape religious persecution like in Massachusetts Bay, that goal will go on to influence not only who came to the Americas from Europe, but also their relationships with native people.