Medieval Europe + Byzantine
- Birth of the Gothic: Abbot Suger and the ambulatory at St. Denis
- St. Denis Ambulatory (quiz)
- Chartres Cathedral
- Cathedral of Notre Dame de Chartres (quiz)
- The Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris (before the fire)
- Reims Cathedral
- Reims Cathedral and World War I
- Amiens Cathedral
- Amiens cathedral
- Sainte-Chapelle, Paris
- Bible moralisée (moralized bibles)
- Saint Louis Bible (moralized bible)
- Humanizing Mary: the Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux
- Jean le Noir, Bourgot (?), and workshop, Miniature of Christ’s Side Wound and Instruments of the Passion from the Prayer Book of Bonne of Luxembourg
- Ivory casket with scenes from medieval romances
Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, 1248. Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris.
Want to join the conversation?
- Is the Crown of Thorns that is housed at Sainte-Chapelle real? As in, was this the actual historic Crown, or will we never know for sure?(1 vote)
- As with most, if not all of the relics, we will never be sure of authenticity, but can be made sure of fakes, like that of Piltdown Man.(5 votes)
- As far as I know St Louis didn't purchase the Crown of Thornes from any Byzantine emperor, but from Baldwin - the Latin emperor in Constantinople at that time (in the first half of the 1200s), who was closer to the western states and sent, with the other Latins, a lot or relics to the West. If there aren't some new studies.
Thanks for all the lessons!(1 vote)
(jazz piano music) - [Dr. Steven] We've walked into the courtyard of what had once been the palace of the king of France and in the center is a jewel box, Sainte-Chapelle. - [Dr. Beth] This was the royal chapel, this was a chapel attached to the Royal Palace for the use of the king and his household but it's much more than that. - [Dr. Steven] We walked in through the lower chapel which was used by the king's household into the upper channel which was used by the king, by the queen and by the court. - [Dr. Beth] In fact, there are niches on either side for the king and queen. At the far end was a reliquary and this was the whole point of Sainte-Chapelle. - [Dr. Steven] The king Saint Louis had obtained one of the great relics of Christendom, the Crown of Thorns. This was part of the passion of Christ. - [Dr. Beth] And of course, a crown is symbolic of royalty and this was the chapel of Saint Louis also known as King Louis IX. - [Dr. Steven] Saint Louis was able to purchase the crown from his cousin who was the Byzantine emperor. - [Dr. Beth] For an enormous sum. - [Dr. Steven] And I think it's important to just step back and think about what that crown signified. The faithful believe that the crown had touched Christ, had made him bleed. And the idea of the relic is central. It collapses time, it brings Christ into our immediate experience. - [Dr. Beth] Now, relics were incredibly important in Medieval culture. They performed miracles. - [Dr. Steven] Extremely ornate boxes were produced in order to house them and in some ways one can imagine that this entire chapel functions metaphorically as a reliquary for the Crown of Thorns. - [Dr. Beth] It's said that more than three quarters of this building is made of glass. There's light flooding in. It's a light that is golden and red and blue and purple. - [Dr. Steven] This is a crowning achievement of gothic architecture. The lancet windows soar upward pointing our eyes towards heaven. - [Dr. Beth] And typically we see the four part ribbed groin vaults. - [Dr. Steven] And bundled colonettes that make the masonry feel more delicate. In fact, the masonry has been reduced to almost nothing, really just mullions, that is slender, vertical forms that separate the windows. - [Dr. Beth] But we're here in the 13th century beyond the high gothic. A period that art historians called the Rayonnant where we have this emphasis on thin line and the total opening up of the walls to windows which was always a goal of gothic architecture but here taken to such an extreme. Over the west door we see this enormous rose window. Now, rose windows were a typical feature of gothic architecture but during this Rayonnant period, the stone tracery that make up the stained glass window becomes thinner and more attenuated and more complex. - [Dr. Steven] Now, the windows are not just beautiful, they tell stories. Each window refers to either an old or new testament story or a story referring to the acquisition of the relic. We see a window representing the moment when Christ has the crown of thorns placed on his head, the crown that by tradition was held in this church. - [Dr. Beth] This is dense with imagery. In addition to the stained glass windows, we have sculptures of the apostles that stand between the windows. We have quatrefoils that depict scenes of martyrdom and there are also angels in the spandrels many of whom hold crowns, some swing censors. - [Dr. Steven] A reminder of what the space would have been like when it was still used as a church. So, imagine this space filled with music, filled with the voice of the priest, filled with the smoke of the incense with colored lights streaming through. It is this beautiful mystical space. - [Dr. Beth] In addition to there being so much imagery, so much of the surfaces are painted. There are reds and golds and blues, there's almost nothing that would remind us that this is a building made of stone. - [Dr. Steven] This completely open the interior space with so much glass seems absolutely miraculous. It is a testament to the sophistication of gothic architects during this late period. There seems like there's not nearly enough stone to hold this building up. Let's go outside and take a look at how this was achieved. We've walked out of the chapel and what strikes me is that the building really stands alone. It's tall and it's thin but here we are in the middle of the Ile de la Cite, a small island in the middle of modern Paris. - [Dr. Beth] And in the 13th century at the very time that Sainte-Chapelle was built, Paris was becoming the capital that we know it as today. - [Dr. Steven] We can see how the building structure works from the outside. The actual responsibility for bearing the great weight of the stone vaulting is carried by the buttresses which we can see on the exterior. All of that weight was brought outside but the buttresses are kept fairly small in order to ensure that light can enter in the windows which creates another problem. The lateral force of the roof is pushing outward and these buttresses on their own wouldn't be enough to support the roof. - [Dr. Beth] There is an additional structural element that was added to help ensure the stability of the building. There are iron rods that act like a kind of girdle to counter the thrust of the vaulting down and out. - [Dr. Steven] Some art historians have pointed out that the exterior top of the building looks rather like a crown. - [Dr. Beth] If we look up toward the top of Saint-Chapelle we see gables and in between the gables those buttresses. But the buttresses have on top of them these tall pinnacles and we almost read that alternations of gables and pinnacles as the points on a crown. - [Dr. Steven] And in fact the phrase Sainte-Chapelle is a specific type of chapel, that is a chapel within the palace grounds and that holds a relic. (jazz piano music)