Medieval Europe + Byzantine
- Illuminated Gospel-books
- Book illumination in the Eastern Mediterranean
- Illuminating the Psalms in Byzantium
- Theotokos mosaic, apse, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
- The Paris Psalter
- Middle Byzantine church architecture
- Regional variations in Middle Byzantine architecture
- Mosaics and microcosm: the monasteries of Hosios Loukas, Nea Moni, and Daphni
- Middle Byzantine secular art
- Middle Byzantine secular architecture and urban planning
- Byzantine frescoes at Saint Panteleimon, Nerezi
- Saving Torcello, an ancient church in the Venetian Lagoon
- Cross-cultural artistic interaction in the Middle Byzantine period
- Saint Mark's Basilica, Venice
- Mobility and reuse: the Romanos chalices and the chalice with hares
- A Byzantine vision of Paradise — The Harbaville Triptych
- A work in progress: Middle Byzantine mosaics Hagia Sophia
- Byzantium, Kyivan Rus’, and their contested legacies
- The visual culture of Norman Sicily
- The Cappella Palatina
- The Melisende Psalter
by Dr. Robert G. Ousterhout
Periods of Byzantine history
Early Byzantine (including Iconoclasm) c. 330 – 843
Middle Byzantine c. 843 – 1204
The Fourth Crusade & Latin Empire 1204 – 1261
Late Byzantine 1261 – 1453
Post-Byzantine after 1453
Exterior of a cross-in-square church, Fatih Mosque (H. Stephanos ?), early 9th century, Trilye in Bithynia (photo: © Robert Ousterhout)
The cross-in-square church
The end of Iconoclasm (the conflict regarding religious images and their removal from churches) and the development of a
had profound effects on church design, in terms of the development of a standardized program of decoration and a concomitant standardized building design, both of which reflected the hierarchy of Orthodox belief. The pyramidal massing of forms, from a tall central dome to high crossing vaults, to lower corner vaults and walls, provides an ideal framework for figural imagery.
theology of images
Fatih Mosque (H. Stephanos ?), plan and isometric section highlighting the elements of a cross-in-square church, early 9th century, Trilye (Zeytinbağı) in Bithynia (adapted from plan and isometric section © Robert Ousterhout)
Fatih Mosque, Trilye
First seen in Trilye during the Transitional Period, the
emerged as the standard church type following Iconoclasm.
Myrelaion church (Bodrum Mosque), c. 920, Constantinople (Istanbul) (photo: © Robert Ousterhout)
The Myrelaion, Constantinople
The Myrelaion church in Constantinople, built c. 920, achieves a balance between the articulation of the structural system and the coordination of the interior spaces.
Elements of a cross-in-square church, Myrelaion church (Bodrum Mosque), c. 920, Constantinople (Istanbul)
Forms cascade down from the central dome like a pyramid. Four bracing vaults extend outward in the form of a cross, set within the square of the plan below. Hence the term, “cross-in-square,” which defines this building type spatially, in three dimensions, rather than as a floor plan. Four columns support the dome and subdivide the naos into nine bays. Those in the corners are the lowest, and correspond in height with the narthex and pastophoria—the side chambers in the
that flank the central altar area. Pilasters with half-columns on the church’s exterior correspond to internal walls and supports so one can “read” the internal structure based on its exterior articulation.
Elements of a cross-in-square church, view of the naos, Myrelaion (Bodrum Mosque), c. 920, Constantinople (Istanbul) (photo: Dosseman, CC BY-SA 4.0)
Originally constructed as the palace chapel of
, the building was lavishly decorated and served as the emperor’s place of burial. Like many of the churches of Constantinople, the Myrelaion was converted into a mosque following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, and is known today as the Bodrum Mosque.
The spread of the cross-in-square
Panagia church, late 10th century, Hosios Loukas monastery, Boeotia (photo: Evan Freeman, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)
Plan of the Panagia church (highlighting the dome, bracing vaults, and square naos), late 10th century, Hosios Loukas monastery, Boeotia
The cross-in-square type is widespread, first appearing in Greece in the late tenth century at the
church at Hosios Loukas monastery. While neither this nor the Myrelaion preserves internal decoration, the Panagia ton Chalkeon in Thessaloniki, dated by inscription to 1026, and the rock-cut Karanlık Kilise at Göreme, dated to the eleventh century, provide evidence of the developed interior cycle (view plan of Karanlık Kilise Monastery). The same building type appeared in central
, southern Italy, the Balkans, and Russia, with slight variations, and served a variety of functions, as palatial, domestic, monastic, parish, or funerary churches. The common denominator in all was the small scale appropriate to small groups of worshippers or private use.
The persistence of the basilica
Karanlık Kilise, 11th century, Göreme, Cappadocia (photo: Octavio L, CC BY-SA 3.0)
Old Metropolis, reconstructed plan, 11th century, Verroia (image © Robert Ousterhout).
With the revival of the empire beginning in the second half of the ninth century following the tumultuous Transitional Period, new church construction occurred most often as the result of private patronage. Variations in church design abound during the Middle Byzantine period (843-1204): basilicas and domed basilicas continued to appear, notably when larger interior spaces were required, but in some regions, such as Kastoria in northern Greece, small basilicas persist. Occasionally, as with the ruined, three-aisled basilica at Servia and the Old Metropolis at Verroia (both in Northern Greece), there was not a suitable Early Christian basilica to serve as the cathedral, so a basilica was built in the Middle Byzantine period.
The octogon-domed church
Annotated plan and isometric view of katholikon church (octagon highlighted), Hosios Loukas monastery, 11th century, Boeotia
If the limited scale of the cross-in-square church seemed too small or too plain, the
provided more elaborated interior designs and complex surfaces for mosaic decoration, while providing eight points of support for a larger dome. With squinches providing the transition to the dome, the design may be derived from Arab or Caucasian models. The eleventh-century
of Hosios Loukas monastery, of Nea Moni on Chios, and the destroyed church of H. Georgios ton Manganon in Constantinople suggest the degree of variations possible.
View of dome, squinches, and octagon, katholikon church, 11th century, Hosios Loukas monastery, Boeotia (photo: Evan Freeman, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) (view annotated image).
The katholikon church at Hosios Loukas
At Hosios Loukas, the tall
is extended by transept arms and is enveloped by galleries and annexed chapels on two levels; the hemispherical dome, rises above squinches. Lavishly decorated with marble and mosaic, the circumstances of its construction remain unclear (view plan and isometric view of the Panagia and katholikon churches at Hosios Loukas monastery).
Left: view of Nea Moni from the west (photo: FLIOUKAS, CC BY-SA 4.0); right: plan of katholikon of Nea Moni, Chios, 11th century (© Robert Ousterhout)
Nea Moni on the island of Chios
At Nea Moni (“new monastery”) on the Greek island of Chios, the footprint of a cross-in-square church is maintained, along with low vaults to the
, while the naos appears tower-like, its dome originally nine-sided, rising above a tall drum and an
at the transitional level. The unusual design and lavish decoration with marbles and mosaics may be the result of imperial patronage by
and the work of artisans from Constantinople.
Constantine IX Monomachos
Mosaics decorate the octaconch beneath the dome (with marble revetment lower down), Nea Moni, Chios, 11th century (photo: Meltedrainbow, CC BY-SA 4.0)
H. Georgios ton Manganon in Constantinople
Also attributed to the patronage of Monomachos—and also lavishly decorated—the church of H. Georgios ton Manganon in Constantinople (now destroyed) seems to have had an octagon-domed design, with the dome raised above reentrant piers that curved at the corners of the naos, which was enveloped by an ambulatory. Known from descriptions and limited excavations, however, details of its elevation remain uncertain.
Cross-in-square and atrophied Greek-cross plans compared (adapted from plans © Robert Ousterhout)
The atrophied Greek-cross and other plans
Sv. Nikola (heavily restored), 12th century, Kuršumlija (photo: CrniBombarder!!!, CC BY-SA 3.0)
For churches of scale larger than a cross-in-square design could maintain, the cross-domed format could be adapted to provide a more stable structural system and a more unified interior space, while allowing for a larger dome. Following the models developed in the Transitional Period, the design is again popularized in the twelfth century, as occurred at the katholikon of the Chora monastery. Archaeology suggests that a cross-in-square church of the eleventh century was rebuilt in the early twelfth century on an
. This design was imitated from Bithynia (H. Aberkios at Elegmi) to Serbia (Sv. Nikola at Kursumlija) (view plans of these atrophied Greek-cross churches). Such atrophied Greek-cross churches differ from cross-in-square plans because of their larger domes, smaller crossarms, and lack of four supporting columns.
atrophied Greek-cross plan
Fatih Camii, plan and view of west façade, 12th century, Enez (Ainos) (plan and photo: © Robert Ousterhout)
Domed basilicas also reappear in the same period, as at the Fatih Camii at Enez or the Gül Mosque in Constantinople.
, such as the twelfth-century
in Constantinople, may have been intended to provide additional spaces for burial in close proximity to the naos.
Ambulatory plan, Theotokos Pammakaristos (Fethiye Mosque), hypothetical elevation and plan of the twelfth-century church and its cistern (shown in gray on the plan), Constantinople (Istanbul) (adapted from plan © Robert Ousterhout)
The katholikon at Megisti Lavra on Mount Athos
Katholikon (three apses higlighted in plan), Megisti Lavra, begun in 962, Mount Athos (photo: Evan Freeman, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, plan © Robert Ousterhout)
churches appear in the monastic environment of Mount Athos (a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important center of Eastern Orthodox monasticism), with the addition of lateral apses—i.e. apses on the sides of the church—to a standard cross-in-square plan. The lateral apses, called
, provided a setting for the choirs of monks who sang the liturgy. It is unclear if the new church type emerged by means of later additions or modifications, but the new feature clearly responded to the requirements of the monastic service. At Megisti Lavra, the katholikon begun in 962 was expanded gradually, with the addition of lateral apses to the naos, domed subsidiary chapels flanking the narthex, an outer narthex, and a phiale (font) (view plan of Megisti Lavra Monastery).
Eighteenth-century plans of the katholikon and the trapeza with ceremonies in progress, Megisti Lavra, Mount Athos (V. G. Barskii, 1885–87)
At Vatopedi and elsewhere on Mount Athos, the katholika appear to have triconch plans from the inception.
Choros with windows in upper left, katholikon, Vatopedi monastery, Mount Athos (photo: Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy, CC BY-ND 2.0)
Theotokos tou Libos, Constantinople
Hypothetical reconstruction (left) and plan (right), Theotokos tou Libos, 907, Constantinople (adapted from Megaw, “The Original Form of the Theotokos Church of Constantine Lips”)
Annexed chapels and more complex plans appear regularly in the Middle Byzantine period. The monastic church of the
in Constantinople, built c. 907 as a cross-in-square church similar in scale and detail to the Myrelaion, included six subsidiary chapels in its original design, with two flanking the bema and four tiny, possibly domed chapels on the gallery level. The katholikon of Hosios Loukas has eight chapels, organized on two levels. These subsidiary spaces have been interpreted as settings for private devotions, or possibly private liturgies, or as primarily commemorative spaces, but they are clearly integrated into the overall design of the building. Often a single chapel is set to one side of the building, as at Sv. Nikola at Kuršumlija.
Theotokos tou Libos
Robert G. Ousterhout, Eastern Medieval Architecture: The Building Traditions of Byzantium and Neighboring Lands (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019)
By Dr. Robert G. Ousterhout