- Christine de Pizan and a City of Ladies
- Female artists in the renaissance
- Introduction to gender in renaissance Italy
- Rachel Ruysch, Fruit and Insects
- Emily Mary Osborn, Nameless and Friendless
- Morisot, The Cradle
- A summer day in Paris: Morisot's Hunting Butterflies
- Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party
- Ringgold, Dancing at the Louvre
- Shirin Neshat, Rebellious Silence, Women of Allah series
Essay by Allison Young
In Rebellious Silence, the central figure’s portrait is bisected along a vertical seam created by the long barrel of a rifle. Presumably the rifle is clasped in her hands near her lap, but the image is cropped so that the gun rises perpendicular to the lower edge of the photo and grazes her face at the lips, nose, and forehead. The woman's eyes stare intensely towards the viewer from both sides of this divide.
Shirin Neshat’s photographic series "Women of Allah" examines the complexities of women’s identities in the midst of a changing cultural landscape in the Middle East—both through the lens of Western representations of Muslim women, and through the more intimate subject of personal and religious conviction.
While the composition—defined by the hard edge of her black chador against the bright white background—appears sparse, measured and symmetrical, the split created by the weapon implies a more violent rupture or psychic fragmentation. A single subject, it suggests, might be host to internal contradictions alongside binaries such as tradition and modernity, East and West, beauty and violence. In the artist’s own words, “every image, every woman’s submissive gaze, suggests a far more complex and paradoxical reality behind the surface.” 
Shirin Neshat, Rebellious Silence, Women of Allah series, 1994, B&W RC print & ink, photo by Cynthia Preston ©Shirin Neshat (courtesy Barbara Gladstone Gallery, New York and Brussel)The Women of Allah series confronts this “paradoxical reality” through a haunting suite of black-and-white images. Each contains a set of four symbols that are associated with Western representations of the Muslim world: the veil, the gun, the text and the gaze. While these symbols have taken on a particular charge since 9/11, the series was created earlier and reflects changes that have taken place in the region since 1979, the year of the Islamic Revolution in Iran.
Iran had been ruled by the Shah (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi), who took power in 1941 during the Second World War and reigned as King until 1979, when the Persian monarchy was overthrown by revolutionaries. His dictatorship was known for the violent repression of political and religious freedom, but also for its modernization of the country along Western cultural models. Post-war Iran was an ally of Britain and the United States, and was markedly progressive with regards to women’s rights. The Shah’s regime, however, steadily grew more restrictive, and revolutionaries eventually rose to abolish the monarchy in favor of a conservative religious government headed by Ayatollah Khomeini.
Shirin Neshat was born in 1957 in the town of Qazvin. In line with the Shah’s expansion of women’s rights, her father prioritized his daughters’ access to education, and the young artist attended a Catholic school where she learned about both Western and Iranian intellectual and cultural history. She left, however, in the mid-1970s, pursuing her studies in California as the environment in Iran grew increasingly hostile. It would be seventeen years before she returned to her homeland. When she did, she confronted a society that was completely opposed to the one that she had grown up in.
One of the most visible signs of cultural change in Iran has been the requirement for all women to wear the veil in public. While many Muslim women find this practice empowering and affirmative of their religious identities, the veil has been coded in Western eyes as a sign of Islam’s oppression of women. This opposition is made more clear, perhaps, when one considers the simultaneity of the Islamic Revolution with women’s liberation movements in the U.S. and Europe, both developing throughout the 1970s. Neshat decided to explore this fraught symbol in her art as a way to reconcile her own conflicting feelings. In Women of Allah, initiated shortly after her return to Iran in 1991, the veil functions as both a symbol of freedom and of repression.
The veil and the gaze
The veil is intended to protect women’s bodies from becoming the sexualized object of the male gaze, but it also protects women from being seen at all. The “gaze” in this context becomes a charged signifier of sexuality, sin, shame, and power. Neshat is cognizant of feminist theories that explain how the “male gaze” is normalized in visual and popular culture: Women’s bodies are commonly paraded as objects of desire in advertising and film, available to be looked at without consequence. Many feminist artists have used the action of “gazing back” as a means to free the female body from this objectification. The gaze, here, might also reflect exotic fantasies of the East. In Orientalist painting of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, for instance, Eastern women are often depicted nude, surrounded by richly colored and patterned textiles and decorations; women are envisaged amongst other beautiful objects that can be possessed. In Neshat’s images, women return the gaze, breaking free from centuries of subservience to male or European desire.
Most of the subjects in the series are photographed holding a gun, sometimes passively, as in Rebellious Silence, and sometimes threateningly, with the muzzle pointed directly towards the camera lens. With the complex ideas of the “gaze” in mind, we might reflect on the double meaning of the word “shoot,” and consider that the camera—especially during the colonial era—was used to violate women’s bodies. The gun, aside from its obvious references to control, also represents religious martyrdom, a subject about which the artist feels ambivalently, as an outsider to Iranian revolutionary culture.
The contradictions between piety and violence, empowerment and suppression, are most prevalent in the use of calligraphic text that is applied to each photograph. Western viewers who do not read Farsi may understand the calligraphy as an aesthetic signifier, a reference to the importance of text in the long history of Islamic art. Yet, most of the texts are transcriptions of poetry and other writings by women, which express multiple viewpoints and date both before and after the Revolution. Some of the texts that Neshat has chosen are feminist in nature. However, in Rebellious Silence, the script that runs across the artist's face is from Tahereh Saffarzadeh’s poem “Allegiance with Wakefulness” which honors the conviction and bravery of martyrdom. Reflecting the paradoxical nature of each of these themes, histories and discourses, the photograph is both melancholic and powerful—invoking the quiet and intense beauty for which Neshat’s work has become known.
As an outspoken, feminist and progressive artist, Neshat is aware that it would be dangerous to show her work in conservative modern-day Iran, and she has been living in exile in the United States since the 1990s. For audiences in the West, the "Women of Allah" series has allowed a more nuanced contemplation of common stereotypes and assumptions about Muslim women, and serves to challenge the suppression of female voices in any community.
Essay by Allison Young
Want to join the conversation?
- What does the author mean when, in the ninth paragraph, she says "... consider that the camera - especially during the colonial era - was used to violate women’s bodies"? How were (or are) women's bodies violated with cameras? Did early users of cameras and/or imperialist colonizers, such as the British, U.S., French, or even Dutch or other Westerners, or even Imperial Japan, force women in their colonies to be photographed nude? Is the author referring to just Middle Eastern women, which this article is about? Or is the author referring to other women globally such as Native American and Latin American women, African women, southeast Asian women, etc. who were subjects in western colonies? I can recall men and boys in the United States were supposedly drooling with a prurient interest over naked or half-naked photos of African women in National Geographic magazine photos. However, I have not heard of "violations" of women’s bodies by cameras. Or, following the critique of Orientalist (Western) art and paintings (referred to in the eight paragraph of this article and in other articles and videos on Khan Academy), is the author making a broad charge that pornography in general "violates" women?(11 votes)
- The colonizers both created and bought images that objectified women of colonized cultures, depicting them as exotic objects, to be possessed, like fine pottery or jewels. This took the form of everything from thinly-veiled anthropological eroticism in "National Geographic" to outright burlesque.(14 votes)
- What is the meaning behind the rifle in the Rebellious Silence?(2 votes)
- There are two opinions.
The general western opinion- Symbolises female oppression
Iranian view: Represents a woman willing to die to protect her religion.(1 vote)
- What are the dimensions of Rebellious Silence, from the Woman of Allah Series: Shirin Neshat (Artist) Photo by Cynthia Preston? Where is it located?(1 vote)
- what role does the artist of rebellious silence assumed?(1 vote)
- In the final paragraph of Dr. Young's essay, it is explained that Shirin Neshat assumes the role of an outspoken, feminist and progressive artist who contemplates common stereotypes and assumptions about Muslim women and challenges the suppression of female voices in any community.(1 vote)
- when was this essay written? i am wanting to cite this but i cannot find a publication date.(1 vote)
- Cite this page as: Dr. Allison Young, "Shirin Neshat, Rebellious Silence, Women of Allah series," in Smarthistory, August 9, 2015, accessed June 20, 2021, https://smarthistory.org/shirin-neshat-rebellious-silence-women-of-allah-series/.(1 vote)
- I'd like a clarification. The article says "Post-war Iran was an ally of Britain and the United States, and was markedly progressive with regards to women’s rights. The Shah’s regime, however, steadily grew more restrictive". But then it says there was Shah’s expansion of women’s rights in 1957. Did Shah/his regime support women's rights or not? Does it depend on the time period?(2 votes)
- The writer is desperately trying not to praise western ideals, and to give some legitimacy to the Islamic Revolution.(0 votes)
- Were the poems written on her skin or the photograph?(0 votes)
- The artist's own statement, found at: http://signsjournal.org/shirin-neshat/ is ambiguous. "Artist Statement:
In 1993-97, I produced my first body of work, a series of stark black-and-white photographs entitled Women of Allah, conceptual narratives on the subject of female warriors during the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979. On each photograph, I inscribed calligraphic Farsi text on the female body (eyes, face, hands, feet, and chest);..."(0 votes)