Syllabus: Renaissance to Romanticism

HA112 Syllabus: Weekly Readings and Videos
Important: quizzes listed below are optional BUT all videos and readings are required
You may find this glossary helpful.
The timeline below is especially important to understand as many Italian Renaissance artists looked back—past the thousand years or so of the Middle Ages—to ancient Greek and Roman culture.
timeline

Week 1: Introduction to art history

Wall painting with Seated Woman Playing a Kithara, c. 50-40 B.C.E., fresco, 73 1/2 x 73 1/2 inches / 186.7 x 186.7 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Wall painting with Seated Woman Playing a Kithara, c. 50-40 B.C.E., fresco, 73 1/2 x 73 1/2 inches / 186.7 x 186.7 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Learn:
  • A basic chronology of western civilization and how to understand dates and look at a map critically
  • The general characteristics of the art of ancient Greece and Rome and medieval art
  • The importance of taking time to look and describing
  • The basics of Christianity and the life of Christ in art
Introduction to looking at art
Cave painting, contemporary art and everything in between (an overview of how to find art history content on khanacademy.org) (video/article)
Why look at art? (video)
How art can help you analyze (video)
Is there a difference between art and craft? (video)
Art historical analysis (video)
Historical background
A brief history of Western culture (article)
Common questions about dates (article)
A brief history of religion in art (video)
What maps tell us (article)
What made art valuable—then and now (article)
A brief history of representing the body in Western painting (video)
A brief history of representing the body in Western sculpture (video)
Terms to know and use: Classical Antiquity (ancient Greece and Rome), Middle ages (medieval), patron, commission, composition, Old Testament (Hebrew Bible), New Testament, naturalism, abstraction, transcendent, jamb sculpture, free-standing, formal analysis

Week 2: Late Gothic art in Florence and Siena (Italy) (1250-1400)

Simone Martini, Annunciation, 1333, tempera on panel, 72 1/2 x 82 5/8" or 184 x 210 cm. (Uffizi, Florence)
Simone Martini, Annunciation (detail), 1333, tempera on panel, 72 1/2 x 82 5/8" or 184 x 210 cm. (Uffizi, Florence)
Learn:
  • how altarpieces functioned and changed over time
  • how gold-ground panel paintings were made
  • the impact of the Black Death in the 1300s
  • Italy was divided into city-states that were often at war with one another (a useful map of Italy at this time)
  • the development of naturalism in representations of the body and in the depiction of space in the 1300s
  • the mediums of fresco and tempera
Background
Christianity, an introduction (article)
Standard scenes from the life of Christ in art (article)
Introduction to the Middle Ages (article)
Materials and techniques
Gold-ground panel painting (video from the J.Paul Getty Museum)
Fresco (video from NOVA)
Art terms in action: paint (video from MoMA)
Tempera (video)
Introduction to Late Gothic Art (1250-1400)
Introduction to Late Gothic art (article)
The Black Death (article)
Altarpieces in context (video from The National Gallery in London)
Map of Italy showing city-states (Florence and Siena are circled)
Map of Italy showing city-states (Florence and Siena are circled)
Siena in the Late Gothic period
Siena in the Late Gothic, an introduction (text)
Duccio, Maesta, front and back (video, front; video, back; quiz)
Rucellai Madonna (video, quiz)
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory & Effect of Good and Bad Government (video, quiz)
Presentation of Jesus in the Temple (video)
Simone Martini, Annunciation (video, quiz)
Siena in the 1300s (quiz)
Florence in the Late Gothic period
Florence in the Late Gothic period, an introduction (article)
Cimabue, Santa Trinita Madonna (video)
Giotto, Arena Chapel frescos (article, part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4—videos, and quiz)
Ognissanti Madonna (video)
Terms to know and use: illusionism, tempera, fresco, Black Death (Bubonic Plague), Humanism, contrapposto,foreshortening, chiaroscuro / modeling, volume, altarpiece, prophets, multiple viewpoints, diptych, triptych, polyptych

Week 3: The Renaissance in Northern Europe (1400s)

Detail, Jan Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait, tempera and oil on wood, 1434 (National Gallery, London)
Detail, Jan Van Eyck, The Arnolfini Portrait, tempera and oil on wood, 1434 (National Gallery, London)
Learn:
  • the unique characteristics of the art of Northern Renaissance
  • about the patronage of the Dukes of Burgundy
  • about the development of oil paint and the way it was used by the artists of the Northern Renaissance
  • techniques for carving marble and casting bronze
The Northern Renaissance, an introduction (article)
Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands (article)
Sluter, The Well of Moses (video, quiz)
Biblical Storytelling: Illustrating a Fifteenth-Century Netherlandish Altarpiece (video from The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Workshop of Campin, Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece) (video)
Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (video, closed and video, open, essay, and quiz)
Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban (video)
Portrait of Arnolfini and his Wife (video, quiz)
Petrus Christus, Portrait of a Carthusian (video)
Rogier van der Weyden, Deposition (video, quiz)
Limbourg Brothers, The Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry (video from The Met)
Wilton Diptych (video, quiz)
Materials and techniques (useful for next week)
Quarrying and carving marble (video)
Carving marble with traditional tools (video)
Bronze-casting technique (video)
Terms to know and use: Burgundy, lost-wax process

Week 4: The Early Renaissance (in Florence)—Sculpture and Architecture (1400s)

Detail, Lorenzo Ghiberti, "Gates of Paradise," East Doors of the Florence Baptistery, bronze, 1425-52
Detail, Lorenzo Ghiberti, "Gates of Paradise," East Doors of the Florence Baptistery, bronze, 1425-52
Learn
  • the characteristics of Early Renaissance architecture and sculpture
  • the importance of classical antiquity for the artists of the Early Renaissance
  • linear perspective, contrapposto and the classical orders
  • the historical circumstances in Florence that set the stage for the Renaissance
  • how an artist learned his trade
A beginner's guide to Renaissance Florence
Florence in the Early Renaissance (article)
The study of anatomy (article)
The artist’s life (article from Renaissance Connection)
Linear perspective: Brunelleschi’s experiment (video)
How one-point linear perspective works (video)
Linear perspective (interactive)
Early applications of linear perspective (article)
Contrapposto (video)
The classical orders (video)
Orsanmichele (video)
Biblical Storytelling (video from The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Sculpture & Architecture
Brunelleschi and Ghiberti, The Sacrifice of Isaac (video, quiz)
Ghiberti, "Gates of Paradise," east doors of the Florence Baptistry (video)
Brunelleschi, Old Sacristy (video)
Dome (video, quiz)
Pazzi Chapel (video, quiz)
Nanni di Banco, Four Crowned Saints (video)
Donatello, St. Mark (video, quiz)
The Feast of Herod (video)
David (video, quiz)
Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata (video)
Mary Magdalene (video)
Alberti, Palazzo Ruccellai (video, quiz)
Sant'Andrea in Mantua (article)
Terms to know and use: guild, civic pride, equestrian sculpture, republic, niche, linear perspective (orthogonals, vanishing point, horizon line), Pietra Serena

Week 5: Painting in the Early Renaissance in Florence & central Italy (1400s)

Monkey (detail), Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi, 1423, tempera on panel, 283 x 300 cm (Uffizi Gallery, Florence)
Monkey (detail), Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi, 1423, tempera on panel, 283 x 300 cm (Uffizi Gallery, Florence)
Learn
  • the characteristics of painting in the Early Renaissance in Florence and central Italy
  • how Early Renaissance artists employed linear perspective
  • how Early Renaissance artists employed the forms of ancient Roman architecture in their paintings
  • the changing status of the artist in the Renaissance
  • about a type of painting called a "sacra conversazione"
Early Renaissance Painting in Florence
Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi (video, article)
Masaccio, Virgin and Child Enthroned (video)
Holy Trinity (video, article & quiz)
The Tribute Money (video, article & quiz)
Expulsion (video)
Fra Angelico, Annunciation (video, quiz)
Fra Filippo Lippi, Madonna and Child with Angels (video, article & quiz)
Domenico Veneziano, St. Lucy Altarpiece (video)
Perugino, Christ giving the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven to St. Peter (article)
Botticelli, Primavera (video)
Birth of Venus (video, quiz)
Antonio Pollaiuolo, Battle of Ten Nudes (article)
The Early Renaissance in Florence (including painting, sculpture and architecture) (quiz)
Early Renaissance painting in central Italy
Piero della Francesca, Baptism of Christ (video, quiz)
Flagellation of Christ (article)
Resurrection (article)
Duke and Duchess of Urbino (video, quiz)
Signorelli, The Damned Cast into Hell (article)
Terms to know and use: bronze, lost-wax casting, secular, sacra conversazione, coffer, barrel vault, pilaster, Classical orders (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian), continuous narrative, St. Peter, Pantheon, memento mori

Week 6: Early and Late Renaissance in Venice (c. 1400s-1500s)

Giovanni Bellini, San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505, oil on wood transferred to canvas, 16 feet 5-1/2 inches x 7 feet 9 inches (San Zaccaria, Venice)
Detail, Giovanni Bellini, San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505, oil on wood transferred to canvas, 16 feet 5-1/2 inches x 7 feet 9 inches (San Zaccaria, Venice)
Learn:
  • the unique characteristics of the art of Renaissance Venice
  • learn how the economic and historical circumstances in Venice
  • about the use of oil paint in Venice
  • about illusionistic ceiling painting
  • about the Renaissance interest in human anatomy
Early Renaissance in Venice (1400s)
Venetian art: an introduction (text)
Oil paint in Venice (video)
Bellini, St. Francis (video)
Bellini, San Giobbe Altarpiece (video)
Bellini, San Zaccaria Altarpiece (video)
Mantagena, San Zeno Altarpiece (video)
Camera degli Sposi (video)
Dead Christ (video)
Renaissance in Venice in the 1400s (quiz)
Late Renaissance in Venice (1500s)
Giorgione, The Tempest (video)
Titian, Assumption of the Virgin (video)
Madonna of the Pesaro Family (video)
Venus of Urbino (video, quiz)
Coreggio, Jupiter and Io (video)
Veronese, Feast in the House of Levi (video, article)
Tintoretto, Last Supper (video)
Palladio, La Rotunda (article)
Terms to know and use: Di sotto in sù, glazing

Week 7: midterm


Week 8: The High Renaissance—Leonardo, Bramante & early Michelangelo (1500s)

Raphael, School of Athens, fresco, 1509-1511 (Stanza della Segnatura, Papal Palace, Vatican)
Heraclitus (detail), Raphael, School of Athens, fresco, 1509-1511 (Stanza della Segnatura, Papal Palace, Vatican)
Learn:
  • how Rome overtook Florence as the center of Italian Renaissance art due largely to the patronage of Pope Julius II
  • the work of High Renaissance artists including Raphael, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Bramante
  • the characteristics of the High Renaissance and Mannerist styles
Leonardo
Toward the High Renaissance (video, article)
Galileo Galilei (article)
Galileo and Renaissance art (article)
About Leonardo (article)
Leonardo, Letter to the Duke of Milan (video)
Anatomist (Nature video)
Leonardo a Vinci's Vitruvian Man of math (video)
Virgin of the Rocks (video, article)
Adoration of the Magi (video)
Virgin and Child with St. Anne St. John the Baptist (video)
Last Supper (video, article, quiz)
Mona Lisa (video, article)
Bramante
Bramante, Tempietto (video)
Bramante, St. Peter's Basilica (video, article)
Early Michelangelo
Michelangelo, painter, sculptor and architect (article)
Pietà (video)
David (video)
Terms to know and use: sfumato, Madonna of Humility

Week 9: The High Renaissance continues and Mannerism (1500s)

Celestial globe (detail), Raphael, School of Athens, fresco, 1509-1511 (Stanza della Segnatura, Papal Palace, Vatican)
Celestial globe (detail), Raphael, School of Athens, fresco, 1509-1511 (Stanza della Segnatura, Papal Palace, Vatican)
Learn:
  • about the patronage of Pope Julius II
  • the work of Michelangelo and Raphael in Florence and Rome
  • the characteristics of the High Renaissance style in the art of Michelangelo and Raphael
  • the characteristics of Mannerism
High Renaissance: Later Michelangelo
​Raphael, Portrait of Julius II (video)
Michelangelo, Moses (video)
Slaves (video)
Studies for the Battle of Cascina and the Creation of Adam (article)
Sistine Chapel ceiling (video, article, quiz)
Study for the Libyan Sibyl (video from The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Last Judgment, altar wall of the Sistine chapel (video)
Laurentian Library (video)
High Renaissance: Raphael
Raphael, Madonna of the Goldfinch (video)
Stanza della Segnatura (School of Athens) (video, quiz)
Galatea (video)
Mannerism
A beginner's guide to Mannerism (article)
Pontormo, Entombment (video, quiz)
Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck (video)
Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (video)
Bronzino, An Allegory with Venus and Cupid (video)
El Greco, View of Toledo (article)
Burial of Count Orgaz (video)
Terms to know and use: Pope Julius II, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, prophets, sibyls, Ignudi, blessed/damned

Week 10: The Renaissance Northern Europe continues (c. 1500s)

Hans Holbein the Younger, The Ambassadors, 1533, oil on oak, 207 x 209.5 cm (The National Gallery, London)
Hans Holbein the Younger, The Ambassadors, 1533, oil on oak, 207 x 209.5 cm (The National Gallery, London)
Learn:
  • about artists who were painting just before the Reformation
  • the challenge to the Church in Rome by Martin Luther
  • art’s role in the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation
  • how Luther used art to communicate his theology
  • how artists were impacted by the Reformation
  • how Dürer's art was influenced by his travels to Italy
The Reformation and Counter-Reformation
The Protestant Reformation (article)
Setting the Stage, part 1 (video)
Martin Luther, part 2 (video)
Varieties of Protestantism, part 3 (video)
The Counter-Reformation, part 4 (video)
The Protestant Reformation (quiz)
Art in Northern Europe at the time of the Reformation (c. 1500s)
Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (article, quiz)
Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights (article)
Dürer, Self Portrait (video, quiz)
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (article)
Melancholia (article)
Adam and Eve (video from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, article)
The Four Apostles (video)
Holbein, Ambassadors (video)
Bruegel, Hunters in the Snow (video, quiz)
Terms to know and use: transubstantiation, Reformation, Counter-Reformation, Council of Trent, Martin Luther, 95 Theses, indulgences, iconoclasm

Week 11: Baroque Art in Italy (1600s)

View of Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624-33 to Dome (Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Rome)
View of Bernini, Baldacchino, 1624-33 to Dome (Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Rome)
Learn:
  • the characteristics of the Italian Baroque style in painting and sculpture
  • the relationship of the Baroque style to the Counter-Reformation
  • about Francis Bacon and the Scientific revolution
  • about Baroque illusionistic ceiling painting
  • about women artists
Introduction to Baroque art
Baroque art in Europe, an introduction (article)
Francis Bacon and the Scientific Revolution (article)
Beginner's guide to the Baroque (quiz)
A brief history of women in art (article)
Baroque art in Italy
Bernini, David (video, article, quiz)
Baldacchino (video)
Ecstasy of St. Theresa (video, quiz)
Cathedra Pietri (video)
St. Peter's Square (video)
Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (video)
Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew (video)
Deposition (or Entombment) (article)
The Death of the Virgin (video)
Gentileschi, Judith and Holofernes (video)
Gaulli, Triumph of the Name of Jesus (video)
Pozzo, Glorfication of Saint Ignatius (video)
Guido Reni, Aurora, ceiling fresco in the Casino dell'Aurora, Rome (article)
Terms to know and use:
di sotto in sù and quadratura

Week 12: Baroque art in Northern Europe and Spain (c. 1600s)

Detail, Peter Paul Rubens, The Presentation of the Portrait of Marie de' Medici, c. 1622-1625, oil on canvas, 394 x 295 cm (Musée du Louvre)
Detail, Peter Paul Rubens, The Presentation of the Portrait of Marie de' Medici, c. 1622-1625, oil on canvas, 394 x 295 cm (Musée du Louvre)
Learn:
  • the characteristics of the Baroque style in Flanders
  • the characteristics of the Baroque style in the Dutch Republic, including the expansion of subject matter, and the emergence of a market for art, and a wide art-buying public
  • about the mercantile culture of Northern Europe
Baroque art in Flanders:
Rubens, Elevation of the Cross (video, article)
Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (video)
Presentation of the Portrait of Marie de Medici (video, article)
Arrival of Marie de Medici (video)
Consequences of War (video)
Van Dyck, Charles I at the Hunt (video)
Baroque art in Flanders (quiz)
Baroque art in the Dutch Republic:
Hals, Singing Boy with Flute (video)
Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (video, article)
Night Watch (article)
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (video from The Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Self-Portrait (video)
Leyster, Self-Portrait (video)
Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance (video, quiz)
The Art of Painting (video)
Ruysch, Fruit and Insects (video)
Flower Still-Life (article)
Baroque art in Spain
Cotán, Quince, Melon and Cucumber (article)
Velazques, The Surrendur of Breda (article)
Velazquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) (video)
Baroque art in France
Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego (video)
Rigaud, Louis XIV (video)
Versailles (article, quiz)
Terms to know and use: genre painting, painterly

Week 13: Rococo and Neoclassicism (c. 1700-1800)

Lovers (detail), ​Antoine Watteau, Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717, oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 4 1/2" (Louvre, Paris)
Lovers (detail), ​Antoine Watteau, Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717, oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 4 1/2" (Louvre, Paris)
Learn:
  • the stylistic characteristics of Rococo and its relationship to the hierarchy and extravagances of French court life
  • the philosophical origins of the French Revolution and the violence of the Reign of Terror and their impact on this period’s visual culture
  • the stylistic characteristics of Neoclassicism and its relationship to the ideals of the Enlightenment
Introduction
Introduction to the age of the Enlightenment (article)
Rococo (in France)
A beginner's guide to Rococo (article)
Watteau, Pilgrimage to Cythera (video, quiz)
Boucher, Madame de Pompadour (video)
Fragonard, The Swing (video, quiz)
The Meeting (video)
NeoClassicism in France
Neo-Classicism, an introduction (article)
David, Oath of the Horatii (video, quiz)
Death of Marat (video, article)
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (article)
Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, Pointing to her Children as Her Treasures (article)
Britain and American in the age of Revolution
Jefferson, Monticello (article)
Houdon, George Washington (article)
William Hogarth, Marriage A-la-Mode (video, quiz)
Gainsborough, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews (article)
Terms to know and use: Reign of Terror, absolute monarchy, divine right of kings, Enlightenment, Ancien Regime, aristocracy, Jacobin, empiricism

Week 14: Romanticism (c. 1800-1850)

Detail, Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808 in Madrid: the executions on Principe Pio hill, 1808, 1814-15, oil on canvas, 8' 9" x 13' 4" (Museo del Prado, Madrid)
Detail, Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814-15, oil on canvas, 8' 9" x 13' 4" (Museo del Prado, Madrid)
Learn:
  • the characteristics of Romanticism in France, Spain, England and Germany
  • about Napoleon, the restoration of the Monarchy and the Revolution of 1830 in France
  • about the Industrial Revolution and the characteristics of the modern era
Introduction to Romanticism
Becoming Modern (article)
A beginner's guide to Romanticism (article)
Romanticism in France
Gros, Napoleon Visiting the Plague-stricken in Jaffa (video)
Géricault, Raft of the Medusa (video, quiz)
Portraits of the Insane (article)
Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus (video)
Liberty Leading the People (video, article, quiz)
Ingres, Grande Odalisque (video, article)
Romanticism in Spain
Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (article)
The Family of Charles IV (video)
The Third of May, 1808 (article, quiz)
Romanticism in England
Romanticism and the Victorian era (article)
Fuseli, The Nightmare (article, quiz)
William Blake (video from Tate)
Constable and the English Landscape (article)
View on the Stour near Dedham (video, quiz)
Turner, Slave Ship (video, quiz)
Romanticism in Germany
Friedrich, Monk by the Sea (video, article, quiz)
Abbey among the Oak Trees (video, quiz)
Terms to know and use: Napoleon Bonaparte, pastoral, barricade, Bourbon Restoration, sublime
Industrial Revolution

Week 15: Final Exam