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Current time:0:00Total duration:5:16

Jerónimo de Balbás, Altar of the Kings (Altar de los Reyes)

Viceroyalty of New Spain

Video transcript

we're in the main cathedral of Mexico City the largest Cathedral in the Americas and we've walked all the way down the side aisle to the very back of the church and we are presented with the most opulent architecture that I have ever seen what we're looking at is what's called the altar of the kings there was nothing like it until its creation and this would set a precedent for architecture across Mexico it's begun in 1718 but it's not finished until 1737 and that's in part because of its enormous size and the numerous people who had to work on this altarpiece the wood working alone took seven years and then it took a dozen years to gild it all it's orchestrated and designed by the artist harinama double-bass who comes from Spain he's from Sevilla or Seville he's thought to have been either working in the circle of the true to geta family or to have at least been familiar with his architecture which is a really sumptuous architecture dominated by what's called a nasty petite column we're in an artistic euro which we call the Baroque and magnificent sumptuous religious structures are being built throughout a Catholic Europe but one of the dominant forms of architecture at this time what is known as the Solomonic column which is a spiral column probably most famously seen in st. Peter's in the Vatican but this steep atte is a very different kind of form it is rectilinear but it is just as dynamic as the Solomonic the use of the St potat column is important here and what it approximates is the ideal male body where you get the sense of the neck the broad shoulders and then tapering to the feet it also looks like an inverted obelisk so unlike a traditional Greek column which tends to be wider at the bottom and to taper upward this tapers downward and the result is complex and fascinating you have placed the mass that is the heaviest part of the column upward and so there is this inherent instability and what a perfect wave of understanding the Baroque intro in dynamism because when we look at the altar of the Kings it seems as if it is absolutely in motion undulating shifting it is this ideal representation of the baroque and of course we have to imagine the candle light flickering over the surfaces that are primarily gilded but on a scale that is almost hard to comprehend you don't have clear-cut registers where you're displaying sculpture and painting instead is this very sophisticated mix of painting architecture and sculpture and in fact the architecture was gilded the sculptures are painted and the paintings are completely framed by both the sculpture and the architecture so you really lose those kinds of clear distinctions and even though at first glance it might seem that there isn't any order here there actually is it's probably easiest to see the structure by focusing on the four largest columns there are two columns that frame the paintings in the center and then two columns behind those and if we're starting at the bottom and we look horizontally we see a row of women who are queens and princesses if we go to the middle level we see Christian kings and then we see God the Father crowning the entire scene before us and figures of the Holy Family the two largest paintings in the center which today are fairly dark represent at the bottom of three kings and then the assumption of the Virgin Mary which is appropriate given the name of this church if we look between these two is steep it take columns on either side you see let's call the niche pilaster and it's basically a broken up pilaster that has a niche with some of these fabulous sculptures of Kings that are again all polychromed wood painted wood and so this pairing of the aesthetic column and the niche plaster is something that you continue to see when this style is employed after this point this was a major Commission it was supported by the crown and locally by the Viceroy and it was meant to assert the authority of the King and I think it's important to keep in mind that instead of using local artists you have an immigrant artist from Spain underscore that point the contract forbade the use of esta foto the low style of gilding with stamping and carving and instead it stipulated sculptures in the Roman style that are just polychromed wooden sculptures and what's fascinating about this is even though Bal bas the designer of this altarpiece did employ some local artists there was this distancing of some of these local traditions this is after all the most privileged place within the most important church in Mexico and so it's no surprise that the Viceroy and the king are going to assert their power here and what's wonderful about this is even though there is this alienation of some of the local population particularly the Creoles or pure-blooded Spaniards born on American soil after the completion of this altarpiece it begins to influence architecture that is seen as expressing this new patriotism or let's say Creole nationalism which comes to be known as ultra Baroque you