AP®︎ World History
Early Muslims escape Quraysh persecution by migrating to Medina in 622. With Medina as the base of their community, they are able to convert Mecca and most of Arabia to Islam during the remainder of the life of Muhammed (next 10 years).
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- Do we have any context or maps about muslims strategies during these wars ?(8 votes)
These three links lead you to the top 3 battles (importance to the Spread of Islam)
Some famous Generals you might want to know about such as Khalid Ibn Walid
you may read about him in the book called Sword of Allah Khalid Ibn Walid by A.I Akram
There are even more famous battles like the battle of Tabuk against the Byzantine Empire and Qadissayyah against the Persian or Sassanid Empire the links for those 2 battles are here:
- How was it possible that the early muslims won these battles when they were incredibly outnumbered? This is puzzling me(1 vote)
- At the battle of Badr, God sent 1,000 angels to help the Muslims fight the battle, thus resulting in victory for the Muslims.
At the battle of Uhud, Muhammad stationed 50 archers on a hill to guard the back of the Muslim army, not to let the Quraysh attack from the back. He told them to stay in their place no matter which way the battle went. As the battle progressed, the Muslims were evidently winning. The archers thought that the Muslims had won and that the battle was over, so they left their station, disobeying the prophet. As a result, the Quraysh were able to attack from the back, outnumbering the Muslims, resulting in many deaths and the Muslims losing the battle.
The Muslims obviously had the upper hand because of the trench in the Battle of the Trench. When the Muslims heard of the Quraysh army coming to attack, they started to discuss what strategy they should use because they were outnumbered. Among them was a man called Salman Al-Farsi, who was a Persian who travelled from his home to live in Medina and learn the prophet's teachings. He suggested that they build a trench around Medina, as that was what his people did in some battles. So they won the Battle of the Trench.
I hope this answered your question. :)(14 votes)
- What was the relationship with the Jews in the development of Islam during Mohammed's life and after his death?(2 votes)
- well there was some conflict with Jews since they wanted the new prophet to be born within their tribes but over time they managed to co exist(1 vote)
- was Mohammad like a political, military and religious leader to the early muslims or did someone else lead them to battles and keep things in check(3 votes)
- Great question! Muhammad (peace be upon him) was all three to the Muslims. He taught the people their faith. He was involved in the religious, military and political side of things. He led most expeditions/battles, and if not, sent people by his command.(6 votes)
- At0:45, and in the previous video, Sal mentions the Muhammad had these "revelations". What exactly does he, and the Quaran, mean when they say "revelations"?(1 vote)
- Muslims believe that Quran is word of God and was revealed to Holy Prophet by the angel Gabriel. Gabriel appeared before Him and told Him the verses of Quran over the course of almost 23 years. Verses of Quran were not revealed in the order they are in Quran. Gabriel told Him in which order to put verses in and Holy Prophet then asked the Muslims to write it down.(10 votes)
- Is Hajj the pilgrimage to Mecca? Or the Kaaba?(1 vote)
- It's both. The Kaaba is IN Mecca. As part of Hajj you visit the Kaaba and walk around it in a circle(4 votes)
- What sources is Sal mentioning to when he says "according to Muslim traditions"?(1 vote)
- When concerning Islam, most information comes from one of three sources, the Qur'an, Sunnah and Hadith. The Qur'an is the holiest book in Islam, Hadith are sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the Sunnah is what the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) did. So, when Sal mentioned 'Muslim traditions', he was probably referring to one of these sources. :)(3 votes)
- Was Muhammed in these battles as a leader or did he appoint generals?(1 vote)
- Muhammad (peace be upon him) led the people to battle and even fought himself. He did appoint sub-leaders in his armies as well.(2 votes)
- How did people in Mecca first react to people becoming Muslims?(1 vote)
- The poor people (Slaves/Servants/Peasants) of Mecca mainly accepted Islam because they saw it as a peaceful religion. However, the rich people (who were the majority) did not accept Islam as they feared that they would lose their authority and power in Mecca (the one who feared and hated Islam the most was Abu Jahl, which literally means, "The father of the ignorant[s]") Many Muslims were tortured in the beginning. The masters of the Muslim Slaves would beat them with whips, make them lie down on the hot desert sand with a boulder on top of them, one person even had their ears cut off when he wasn't even harming them. However, Muhammad (SAW) and his followers kept patience and they had faith in Allah (SWT). Muhammad (SAW) then migrated to Madina, which was 200 miles north of Mecca. I hope this helps, thanks for reading :).(2 votes)
- [Instructor] Where we left off in the last video, we saw a Muhammed being born into a tribal Arabia. He's born into a powerful tribe, the Quraysh, who are in control of Mecca. But his early life is difficult. His mother dies when he's six, his grandfather, who's taken charge of him, dies when he's eight years old, but he's able to, under the care of his uncle, become a merchant, and at the age of 25, he marries a wealthy merchant widow named Khadija, who is 15 years his senior. Then we saw, at age 40 in 610, while meditating in a mountain outside of Mecca, he receives the first revelations of the Qur'an according to Islamic tradition. And he's skeptical of it at first, but he's reassured, and then he soon receives many more revelations, and within roughly three years he starts to preach those revelations. Now as we mentioned in that last video, what he was preaching did not sit well with his own tribe. Those who ruled Mecca, the Quraysh. He was preaching a monotheistic tradition based on Judaism and Christianity, he was preaching that there is no god but God, but Mecca's power, it's economy, was based on people making pilgrimages there to worship the idols at the Kaaba. So the Quraysh did not like Muhammed's revelations, and they did not like these early Muslims. And they persecuted them. They killed them, they tortured them, and we saw in 615, the migration of some of Muhammed's followers to Abyssinia, the Kingdom of Axum, modern day Eritrea in Ethiopia, to escape some of that persecution. Things got worse for Muhammed. We saw in that last video the death of his first wife, and up to that point, his only wife. And this is where we start to see a bit of a turning point for Muhammed and his followers. In 620, and this is according to Muslim traditions, there isn't historical evidence for this and this is one of the more metaphysical events that we'll talk about in this narrative, but according to the Islamic faith, in 620, Muhammed had a night journey from Mecca to the farthest mosque, which today is believed by many Muslims to be the Al-Aqsa mosque, which was built later in Jerusalem. So, right, right, right over here. So a night journey, according to the Muslim faith, to Jerusalem where he ascended with Gabriel to the heavens, and he conversed with some of the prophets of old. And once again, this is clearly a metaphysical thing, but it's a significant event in the Muslim faith. Now the Quraysh continued to persecute Muhammed and the early Muslims in Mecca. We have some of them that are now in the Kingdom of Axum, and Muhammed learns that there's a community, a growing community, of Muslims in the town of Yathrib, who are starting to follow Muhammed, or his revelations, and they come to him and they invite him to come to Yathrib because there's actually a lot of fragmentation, there's warring tribes, and they're seeking an outsider to help bring some peace and authority to this place where there is already a burgeoning Muslim community. So in 622, you have the famous migration of Muhammed and his followers to Yathrib, which is renamed Medina, and Medina literally means The City. And from then on, it really becomes the base of Muhammed and the early Muslims. And Muhammed at this, once he's in Medina, he is no longer just a prophet, he isn't just continuing to have his revelations according to Islamic tradition, but he essentially rules over Medina, and governs it. So he's starting to become both a political ruler, and a spiritual ruler. Now, the Quraysh in Mecca are still not happy, because Muhammed is continuing to preach, and he's continuing to get more and more followers. And so you start having, at first, a series of skirmishes between the armies of the Quraysh, or the members of the Quraysh, and some of the early Muslims. But these skirmishes eventually emerge into full on conflict. And here are some of the significant battles that occurred between the Quraysh tribe, remember, that's Muhammed's own tribe, and the early Muslims, the early followers of Muhammed and his revelations. So most famously perhaps, you have the Battle of Badr, because this is the first time that you have a significant confrontation between a very small, you wouldn't even necessarily call this an army, a small group of Muslims, roughly a little over 300 according to Muslim tradition, versus 900, or a little over 900, on the Quraysh side. And the Muslims are outnumbered three to one, but this results in a Muslim victory, and so you can imagine the early Muslims start to see this as a turning tide, they were able to defeat the powerful Quraysh tribe. Now the Quraysh weren't happy with that, and roughly a year later you have another battle outside of Medina, on Mount Uhud. And once again, the Muslims, which are now larger, but they continue to be outnumbered even more than three to one, this is closer to four to one right over here, and this results in a Quraysh victory. This is right over there, outside on the northern side of what is now called Medina. But then, a few years later, you have a significant battle where the Quraysh have built a confederacy and they want to end this, the teachings of Muhammed, they wanna end these Muslims who are threatening, whose preachings are threatening the pilgrimage, the legitimacy of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca, and so they lay siege to the city of Medina. And as a defensive measure, the Muslims in Medina create a trench around the city, and that's why this is called the Battle of the Trench, and once again, according to Islamic tradition, the Muslims are outnumbered three to one, so this is right over here, the Battle, Battle of the Trench, in which the Muslims are victorious, and this is a significant blow to the legitimacy, the prestige of the Quraysh tribe. A year later, you have the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah between the Quraysh and the Muslims, and this is significant because it's starting to put these early Muslims on the same footing as the powerful Quraysh tribe. It has some allowances for the Muslims to make pilgrimages to the Kaaba. But then, as we go into 630, there's an incident in which one tribe is, kills some members of another tribe. Remember, we're still in a very tribal society, and the other tribe, the one that had some members killed, was aligned, was friendly, with the early Muslims. So the early Muslims did not appreciate this, they send an ultimatum to the Quraysh, and the Quraysh essentially say well, you know, that doesn't matter, we don't really take what you have to say seriously, and they take one of the options of the ultimatum, which is making the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah null and void. So, now that the treaty is not there, and once again this is according to Muslim traditions which are our main accounts that we have of this time, we then have in 630, 10,000 Muslims which is a very significant number, remember, where six years ago we're talking about only 300 Muslims in the Battle of Badr, but 10,000 Muslims march on Mecca. And they're able to take the city peacefully. And what this results in, is essentially most of the city converting to Islam. And famously, Muhammed goes into the Kaaba and destroys the idols there, and according to Islamic tradition, makes the Kaaba a center of the Muslim faith, and it is even today. Now from that point, the spread of Islam continues. You have Muhammed and his armies, this green area is essentially what they were able to conquer in the remainder of his life. And he lives for another, he lives, whoops, he lives for another two years after the acceptance of Islam by Mecca. And they're able to conquer most of this green, this dark green area here, and as we'll see shortly after his death, most of Arabia and even Persia, and within a few hundred years, a large chunk of the world were able to be conquered by these Muslim armies.