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Current time:0:00Total duration:9:52

Video transcript

Sikhism comes into being in northern India and a time when the moguls are coming to power what we see in this blue area is what the first Mughal emperor babur is able to put under his control which includes the region of Punjab which is where Sikhism begins and thrives to this day we see later Emperor's like Akbar continuing to expand the domain of the Mughal emperor with Aurangzeb the least tolerant of the Mughals expanding well into South India it all starts in the 15th century with the birth of who will eventually be known as Guru Nanak he's born into a merchant class Hindu family and he's known to be precocious from a very young age especially when it comes to matters of spirituality he's constantly questioning he goes and learns about various religions remember North India is under the control of the Muslims but it's a Hindu majority population and you also have populations of Christians and Jains and this is also a time as we've studied in other videos where the bhakti movement is on the rise this notion of devotional love to God within Hinduism and it's in this context that guru nanak becomes a significant some would say bhakti grew to get a sense of some of his teachings there is but one God his name is truth he is without hate he is beyond the cycle of births and deaths he is self illuminated so just in this excerpt of some of his sayings you see elements of the core of Hinduism and elements of Islam there's but one God a central tenet of Islam but then these ideas that really come from a Vedic tradition God is beyond the cycle of births and deaths samsara he is self illuminated there's a lot of mention of your inner self your true self is one with this God even kings and emperors with heaps of wealth and vast dominion cannot compare with an ant filled with the love of God so he here you see this buck the influence and you can see why he is considered a major but the Guru or buck the Saint he's emphasizing this devotional love of God the world is a drama staged in a dream so here you have the Hindu the Vedic notions of Maya the world is an illusion his followers will eventually be known as six and the word Sikh comes from the sanskrit word for to learn or learning as related to the word for student and even in modern sanskrit derived languages like Hindi you have words like seekne which means to learn Guru Nanak dies in the early sixteenth century and you can see by this point the Moghuls have taken control of northern India and before his death he named grew angered who is not his son as his successor after Guru Angad you have guru amar das and then you have Guru Ramdas who establishes the city now sacred to Sikhs known as Amritsar originally known as Ramdas poor Guru Ramdas is succeeded on his death by guru Arjun and guru Arjun is significant for many reasons he creates the compilation known as the adi granth which are the sayings and the hymns of the previous crews including his own the adi granth as we will see will eventually evolve into the guru granth side which is considered not only the Sikh holy book but also the last and final of the grooves in Ramdas poor later to be known as Amritsar guru Arjun builds the Harmandir side which is intended to be a place of worship for people of all religions they have a tradition of longer where they feed anyone who comes from any faith and today the harm on their side would later be known as the golden temple where later raja would played it with gold is the largest free kitchen in the world guru Arjun is also known as the first martyr in the Sikh faith as we've talked about the early muggles were relatively tolerant Akbar in particular was extremely tolerant but upon his death his son Jahangir takes power and early in John gears reign he is insecure about his hold on power and remember the moguls are ruling from the same region where the Sikhs are having an increasingly growing following not just from Hindus but also from Muslims threatened by this growing following Jahangir imprisons guru Arjun and tortures guru Arjun trying to get him to renounce the faith to convert to Islam guren refuses despite many days of excruciating torture being boiled alive eventually he dies and there's slightly varying accounts of how it happens after his death his son who will be known as guru har Gobind comes to power and guru har Gobind as legend has it on direction from his father before he would die tells him that the Sikhs need to protect themselves they need to adopt a military tradition to protect themselves from the oppression especially the oppression from the Mughals and so guru har Gobind he is famous for establishing the military tradition of Sikhism he is the first grew to be what you could call a warrior saint he is famous for wearing two swords one to represent his authority in the spiritual realm and another to represent his authority in the temporal realm he also has the longest tenure as grew at Guru Hargobind death his grandson guru har I becomes guru at his death his very young son guru har Christian becomes guru but dies of smallpox after which guru har Gobind youngest son becomes guru he is named eventually guru Tegh Bahadur which means brave sword or brave wielder of the sword because as his father guru har Gobind fought the Mughals he was known as being unusually brave and an unusually competent warrior he continued this tradition of being a warrior st. and especially under the rule of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb as the moguls became more and more intolerant and started forced conversions he viewed himself as a protector of the oppressed not just of the six but the oppressed of any faiths including Hindus who are being forced to convert by Aurangzeb eventually Aurangzeb tortures and kills him for refusing to convert to Islam and he is considered the second guru who is martyred at his death we have the tenth and last human gruel of the Sikh tradition Guru Gobind Singh who continues again this tradition of a warrior saint and actually formalizes it in this notion of kalsa there's a famous story of him gathering the Sikh community and asking for volunteers and the first volunteer he takes into a tent and then he emerges from that tent without the volunteer with a bloody sword giving people the impression that he might have killed that individual then he asked for more volunteers and more people come and every time he comes out of the tent without the volunteers but with a bloody sword but after five volunteers have come they all emerged from the tent he makes it clear that this was an exercise as a test of faith to see who was willing to risk their life to follow the cause and he says these are the kalsa these are the pure together we are going to be a group to fight oppression wherever it might be and he formalizes what it means to be one of these warrior Saints famously with the five K's of kalsa that anyone who goes into the Khalsa indoctrination who becomes a khalsa sikh they should not cut their hair this is known as kesh they should wear a metal bracelet known as cut off they should have a wooden coal known as kanga and they should carry a short dagger sword known as kirpan and there is Quechua which is often an undergarment worn it has symbolic meaning a man who goes through the culture ceremony the culture baptism adopts the title of Singh's which means lion and a woman who does adopt the title core or princess and it's essentially they are promising to fight oppression wherever might be guru gobind singh is also famous for the final compilation of what would be known as the Guru Granth side taking the adi granth which was compiled by guru arjun and adding the hundred fifteen hymns of guru tegh bahadur who was martyred and making this collection of hymns not just from the gurus but from saints and gurus in the Hindu and Muslim tradition as well and declaring that this is the eleventh and final grew and seek today view the Guru Granth side as their grew if you were to visit a Gurdwara which is their temple it means door to the grooved whare same route in sanskrit as door you will see it houses a guru granth side which the sikhs will venerate and view as their guru
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