AP®︎/College US History
Introduction to the age of empire
After more than one hundred years of isolationism, at the end of the nineteenth century the United States became an imperial power.
- In the late nineteenth century, the United States abandoned its century-long commitment to isolationism and became an imperial power.
- After the Spanish-American War, the United States exercised significant control over Cuba, annexed Hawaii, and claimed Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as territories.
- Both a desire for new markets for its industrial products and a belief in the racial and cultural superiority of Americans motivated the United States' imperial mission.
The end of isolationism
The United States had once been a colony, its fates and fortunes tied inextricably with those of Great Britain, and found its colonial status quite at odds with its belief in representative government. In the late eighteenth century, a new alliance with France helped the fledging nation throw off colonial rule. But the help of European powers always came with strings attached, entanglements that the American government found potentially dangerous as the nation struggled to grow and thrive. Having observed the effect of foreign alliances on his administration, when George Washington left office he cautioned his successors to avoid entangling foreign alliances in his Farewell Address of 1796.
For one hundred years, with few exceptions, his successors obeyed. With an ocean separating it from the travails of Europe, the United States quietly developed into a vast and productive country as wars and famines and revolutions elsewhere brought immigrants to its shores. Taking Washington's advice to heart, the United States pursued a policy of isolationism, avoiding alliances and international intrigue as best it could.
But in the late nineteenth century all of that changed rapidly. In the space of just a few years, from 1898 to 1901, the United States went from being a former outpost of the British Empire to an imperial power in its own right, claiming territory or influence over no fewer than five islands outside its territorial boundaries (Cuba, Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines).
Why, in such a short time, did the United States abandon its policy of isolationism and take on colonies of its own?
The scramble for colonies
One explanation for the United States' entry into the imperial game was peer pressure. Between 1870 and 1890, the industrial nations of Europe and Asia, particularly Great Britain, France, Germany, and Japan, scrambled to seize territory in the undeveloped world. With unmatched firepower and technology, these imperial powers divided Africa and Asia among themselves. Many in the United States feared that if America didn't join the race for empire, the great powers would leave it behind.
Global map of empires in 1900.
What was the point of having colonies? Like the system of mercantilism, under which the American colonies had sent raw materials to Great Britain and purchased finished goods in return, colonialism was a system designed to benefit the imperial power, usually at the expense of the colony. Colonies not only provided sources of valuable raw materials (diamonds, gold, timber, oil, rubber, and many others) for the imperial power, their populations served as markets for the industrial products made in the home country.
Markets were particularly important for the United States, which had emerged as the world's leading industrial power in the wake of the Gilded Age. Capitalism could only thrive and expand as long as people purchased the products of industry, and at the end of the nineteenth century, Americans were beginning to fear that new markets within the United States were drying up now that Manifest Destiny (the belief that God intended the United States to occupy the North American continent from Atlantic to Pacific) had been achieved. In 1893, eminent historian Frederick Jackson Turner declared that the American frontier was now closed, leading many to fear that the pioneering spirit central to the American identity was in jeopardy.
What would Americans do now that relentless expansion was no longer possible? Who would Americans be if they no longer had a wilderness to conquer?
The United States becomes an empire
These questions were still unanswered when disturbing news came from Cuba, where guerrilla rebels were attempting to throw off the yoke of Spanish rule. After an American warship exploded in Havana harbor, the United States declared war on Spain. Spain was badly outmatched, and within six weeks the United States had triumphed in the Spanish-American War. In the process, they had acquired significant influence over Cuba, annexed Hawaii, and claimed Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines as territories.
Not everyone was thrilled about the United States' new role as an imperial power. The irony that a former colony, which had once rebelled against a distant government across the ocean, was now governing distant peoples was not lost on contemporary observers. Others protested that imperialism would include people of "inferior" races in the American body politic. The Anti-Imperialist League, which included such diverse characters as steel magnate Andrew Carnegie and labor leader Samuel Gompers, protested the United States' new empire.
But many others saw these new territories as signs that the United States had come of age, and it was the duty of Americans to spread the light of civilization and democracy to the "backward" people of the world. Convinced of the superiority of people of Anglo-Saxon descent, these Americans saw it as the "white man's burden" (a phrase taken from a poem by the author and imperialist booster Rudyard Kipling) to govern and somehow uplift the people of Latin America and the Pacific—whether they wanted it or not.
What do you think?
Why do you think some Americans supported imperialism? Why did some oppose it?
Was colonialism different than Manifest Destiny, or just a new phase of it?
Should the United States have become an empire? How long could the United States have maintained an isolationist policy towards the world?
Want to join the conversation?
- Why did they call people backwards when the constitution says all men are created equal(23 votes)
- We now all apply this to all people, but at the time, the prevailing mode of thought on the subject was "all men like us are created equally".(21 votes)
- What is the puck thing? The puck image? I don't understand what is it? Is it America taking over most of the power?(8 votes)
- Do you mean the magazine? The Puck Magazine just had an image that represented the American people beginning to move forward as an imperialistic nation. The woman in the image was a representation of the state of Columbia, who at the time, people thought was a symbol of the United States. The hat (with the words "world power") was America "trying on" the idea of taking control of other nations and seeing if they liked it.(27 votes)
- Would it be correct to assume, that the "white man's burden" mindset is similar to the mindsets seen with Native Americans in the 1700's with missions and rehabilitation to convert them to Christianity?(9 votes)
- Yes, it's very similar. This idea was based on a Rudyard Kipling poem called "The White Man's Burden," and encompassed the idea that this article talked about. The missionaries did the same thing when they came to North America, believing that they were obligated to save the "savage" natives with their religion.(4 votes)
- how has the gilded age benefited our modern society?(5 votes)
- The abuses of that era, which included political corruption and a wide divide between the VERY rich and the rest of the population, in coordination with a system in which government regulation was weak, led to terrible conditions. Now, 130 years later, as we face another such condition in America, we can learn from what went wrong then so as not to repeat the mistakes. In that way, the gilded age can benefit our current era.(6 votes)
- So did the Spanish-American war kind of cut it for the United States, making them anti-social and want to cut all ties with people so they didn't have to worry about dependence, or to depend on others sort of speak?(5 votes)
- I feel like it's the opposite actually. Previously, we had been closed off from other countries and now they were more willing to expand and contribute to the world economy. This was also after the Industrial Revolution which allowed for quicker ways to transport cargo. That is why this time period we were "imperializing" much like the British and other European powers had done.(2 votes)
- what is another name for empire(2 votes)
- Some other words that would be similar to empire are: kingdom, realm, domain, territory, province, commonwealth, federation, confederation, power, world power, or superpower(5 votes)
- Why did the U.S. Declare war with Spain in 1898(1 vote)
- Scout Finch is right. The USS Maine exploded, and the US government said it was an accident. We had had issues with Spain in the past, and it was because of their annexation of Havana that our ships were posted in South America. Because of this, the press claimed the Spanish had caused the explosion, causing a mass outcry and the demand for a war with Spain. That was why the USA declared war against the Spanish.(5 votes)
- why did the us became an imperial power in the 1890s?(3 votes)
- After the Spanish-American War (Apr 21, 1898 – Aug 13, 1898) The U.S was left with the islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. The U.S figured that if they were to leave these territories to themselves they'd plunge into Anarchy so they imposed themselves on the territories economically and politically.(1 vote)
- How can you be an empire if you're a republic? Doesn't an empire need an emperor?(2 votes)
- No. "Emperor" is the name of a function, and "empire" is a way of describing an organizational model. The USA, for example, can be regarded as an empire because it has overseas territories in both the Pacific and the Carribean, the residents of which have no voice in how the nation is governed. It also has vassal states (independent nations) which have special relationships under which the US takes care of particular functions so that those nations need not bother with them.
Look at the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Midway, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Marshall Islands for examples of these different imperial arrangements.(4 votes)
- I thought that the U.S. didn't have Alaska until 1950, but in one of the diagrams, it says that the U.S. had it in 1900, am I thinking wrong?(2 votes)
- The United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. It didn't become a state until January 3, 1959. Before that it was a territory.(3 votes)