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Failure of Reconstruction


Read the excerpt and answer the following question.
“Poverty afflicted white Southerners as well as black, and tenancy, and the increasingly oppressive
system, were regional rather than racial institutions. But blacks, confronting a unique combination of legal and extralegal coercions, were more vulnerable to fraud and found it more difficult to obtain alternative employment. . . . Blacks in the cotton South owned a smaller percentage of the land in 1900 than they had at the end of Reconstruction and possessed few options other than moving from plantation to plantation each January in search of improved conditions.”
-Source: Eric Foner, historian, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877, 2011
The pattern described in the excerpt most directly contributed to which of the following long-term developments?
Choose 1 answer: