AP®︎/College US History
French, Dutch, and English explorers began to make inroads into the Americans in the late 1500s and early 1600s.
- Gold, silver, and furs attracted European exploration, colonization, and competition in the New World.
- Rivalries between European nations were often rooted in religious or political feuds taking place in Europe, yet these tensions played out in the theater of the New World.
- The Spanish lost their stronghold in North America as the French, Dutch, and British began to explore and colonize the Northeast.
Spanish successes in the Caribbean attracted the attention of other European nations. Like Spain, France was a Catholic nation and committed to expanding Catholicism around the globe. In the early sixteenth century, it joined the race to explore the New World and exploit the resources of the Western Hemisphere.
In 1534, navigator Jacques Cartier claimed northern North America for France, naming the area around the St. Lawrence River New France. Like many other explorers, Cartier made exaggerated claims about the area’s mineral wealth and was unable to send great riches back to France or establish a permanent colony.
Samuel de Champlain made great strides for French exploration of the New World. He explored the Caribbean in 1601 and the coast of New England in 1603 before traveling farther north. In 1608 he founded Quebec, and he made numerous Atlantic crossings as he worked tirelessly to promote New France.
Unlike other imperial powers, France—through Champlain’s efforts—fostered especially good relationships with native peoples as they expanded westward. He learned that becoming friendly with the native people was essential to successful trade. Champlain explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and eventually made it to the Mississippi River. The French made an alliance with the Hurons and Algonquians; Champlain even agreed to fight for them against their enemy, the Iroquois.
The French were primarily interested in establishing commercially viable colonial outposts, so they created extensive trading networks throughout New France. They relied on native hunters to harvest furs, especially beaver pelts, and to exchange these items for French goods, like glass beads.
The French also dreamed of replicating the wealth of Spain by colonizing the tropical zones. After Spanish control of the Caribbean began to weaken, the French turned their attention to small islands in the West Indies; by 1635 they had colonized two, Guadeloupe and Martinique. Though it still lagged far behind Spain, France now boasted its own West Indian colonies with lucrative sugar plantation sites and African slave labor.
Dutch entrance into the Atlantic World is part of the larger story of religious and imperial conflict in the early modern era. In the 1500s, Calvinism, one of the major Protestant reform movements, began to take root in the Spanish Netherlands and the new sect desired its own state. Holland was established in 1588 as a Protestant nation, but would not be recognized by Spain until 1648.
Determined to imperil Protestantism, King Philip of Spain assembled a massive force of over thirty thousand men and 130 ships, and sent this giant navy, known as the Spanish Armada, towards England and Holland. But the skilled English navy and a maritime storm destroyed the fleet in 1588. The defeat of the Spanish Armada was only one part of a larger but undeclared war between Protestantism and Catholicism.
Quickly, the Dutch inserted themselves into the Atlantic colonial race. They distinguished themselves as commercial leaders in the seventeenth century, as their mode of colonization relied on powerful corporations: the Dutch East India Company, chartered in 1602 to trade in Asia, and the Dutch West India Company, established in 1621 to colonize and trade in the Americas.
While employed by the Dutch East India Company in 1609, the English sea captain Henry Hudson explored New York Harbor and the river that now bears his name. Like many explorers of the time, Hudson was actually seeking a northwest passage to Asia and its wealth (that's why he was employed by the Dutch East India Company instead of the Dutch West India Company), but the wealth of coveted beaver pelts alone provided a reason to claim it for the Netherlands.
The Dutch named their colony New Netherlands, and it served as a fur-trading outpost for the expanding and powerful Dutch West India Company. They expanded in the area to create other trading posts, where their exchange with local Algonquian and Iroquois peoples brought the Dutch and native peoples into alliance. The Dutch became a commercially powerful rival to Spain--Amsterdam soon became trade hub for all the Atlantic World.
The first English colony at Roanoke
Religious competition between Catholicism and Protestantism fueled English colonization, although England lacked the financial resources for such endeavors. Nonetheless, as early as 1497, Henry VII of England had commissioned John Cabot, an Italian mariner, to explore new lands. Cabot sailed from England that year and explored Maine and Nova Scotia. Thereafter, English fishermen routinely crossed the Atlantic to fish the rich waters off the east coast.
However, English colonization efforts in the 1500s were closer to home, as England devoted its energy to the colonization of Ireland. Queen Elizabeth I was preoccupied with blocking Spain’s effort to eliminate Protestantism. Still, Elizabeth encouraged English privateers to plunder Spanish ships whenever they could. Each year the English took more than £100,000 from Spain in this way; English privateer Sir Francis Drake first made a name for himself when, in 1573, he looted silver, gold, and pearls worth £40,000.
Elizabeth did sanction an early attempt at colonization in 1584, when Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a colony at Roanoke, an island off the coast of present-day North Carolina. The colony was small, consisting of only 117 people, who seem to have alienated the native Croatan people. They struggled to survive. Their governor, John White, returned to England in late 1587 to secure more people and supplies. When he returned in 1590, only three years later, the entire colony had vanished. The only trace the colonists left behind was the word Croatoan carved into a fence surrounding the village.
Roanoke is still called “the lost colony,” and what happened to the colonists is still a mystery. However, English promoters of colonization would continue to explore the New World in the years to come despite this curious failure.
What do you think?
What role did the colonies play in the European race for geopolitical dominance?
Which European country raised the biggest threat to Spanish dominance in the New World and why?
How did new trade relationships between European nations and natives connect the two worlds? How did it divide them?
Want to join the conversation?
- How much was £100,000 worth in today's money?(19 votes)
- Making comparisons between the value of currency from 450 years ago to today is very difficult. One way would be to look at what the wages at the time were. For example, according to a statute issued in Westminster in August 1588, a blacksmith's and a butcher's annual wages were £6. So £100,000 in the Elizabethan Era was around what 16,500 blacksmiths or butchers might earn in year. Another way to look at the value of £100,000 during this period would be to look at the size of the government's budget. In 1600, the government of the Kingdom of England spent around £450,000. So, £100,000 would have represented nearly one-quarter of government expenditures.(36 votes)
- Were there any conflicts between the French/Dutch and the Native Americans?(20 votes)
- While historians have noted that the French fostered good relationships with Native Americans, the article states that the French did fight the Iroquois as part of an alliance with the Huron and Algonquin.
Meanwhile, the Dutch had strong trade relationships with the Iroquois, and provided them with weapons to use against the Huron.(17 votes)
- How were the Europeans and the Natives able to communicate were there only some Natives that could speak their language or the other way around because their relationship seemed pretty successful(15 votes)
- Good question! Well, history shows that sometimes they used signs to communicate, or, using signs and a whole lotta pointing, they taught each other simple words in the other's language. Hope that helps!(20 votes)
- In the 3rd paragraph of the first english colony at Roanoke could the word Croatoan have been on the fence to mean that like a tribe or something could have gotten them? They could have carved that to let him know that the Croatoan attacked them if there is a tribe called the Croatoan(13 votes)
- There is a tribe called the Croatoans, and the leading theory of the missing colony is that the settlers split into two groups and joined Native American Tribes to survive.(8 votes)
- Ok, hear me out, I think I have a legitimate theory for what happened to Roanoke. So the buildings were completely abandoned, with no sign of a major struggle. The word "Croatoan" was carved into a tree, but people put to much emphasis on that one word, it could just be a coincidence. John White left to get more supplies, because the colony was struggling. He left for three years. My theory is that they either died of starvation or sickness OR traveled away from the failing colony, only to be killed by... Something. Maybe Native Americans, maybe a natural disaster/some other force of nature, or MAYBE another European colony!(15 votes)
- Where there burn marks, destroyed buildings, dead bodies, anything? Please explanation, my theory Is for three years, that's a lot for native people and there beliefs, so I think they just killed all and left croatan, but I have no details on if there was destroyed buildings, corpse.... HELP!(9 votes)
- No, there was no evedince as far as we know. Many people claim to have found hints about where they went, but after a while there were too many confusing hints that we're pretty sure that they were fake.
We don't know for sure, but some people think they joined a native american tribe, but Sir Walter thought that they went to a island at that time was called by the settelers Croatoan. Sir Walter tried to sail to the island on his own, but due to bad weather he couldn't make it.
Your theory is reasonable. If you would like to know more about the lost colony you can watch this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jHrKZ4JBuE(12 votes)
- What does 'croatoan' mean?(7 votes)
- Why did Queen Elizabeth I actually care about the Spanish trying to eliminate Protestantism? Didn't the English push out Protestants and religiously persecute them?(5 votes)
- No. The English didn't push out protestants and religiously persecute them. The English pushed out Roman Catholics and religiously persecuted THEM.(4 votes)
- so the word "coatoan" means "talk town" or "counsel town" so a theory of mine is they maybe went to some sort of counsel area with the natives and ended up living with them? or that the natives massacred them.(6 votes)
- why are the articles so long(5 votes)
- The histories that they narrate went on for decades and decades, involving a lot of people and a lot of territory. It takes a long article to describe stuff like that.(3 votes)