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Cultural interactions between Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans

Problem

"When the
maese de campo
arrived at the pueblo of Acoma he asked the Indians for provisions for his trip and gave them in exchange hatchets and many other things. . . . and then the Indians very unwillingly gave some maize and tortillas. Being told that what the Spaniards needed most was flour, the Indians replied that they had none on hand, but that the Spaniards might leave and return for it the next day. . . . When the maese de campo went to the pueblo with his eighteen men to get the flour . . . the Indians, with treachery and premeditation, after inviting them to come up to their pueblo, killed the maese de campo, Captain Felipe de Escalante, Captain Diego Nuñez, eight soldiers, and two servants . . ."
-Source: Juan de Oñate, Testimony in the Trial of the Indians of Acoma, 1598
Which of the following most directly contributed to the conflict referred to in the excerpt?
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Choose 1 answer: