AP®︎/College Art History
- Petra: The rose red city of the Nabataeans
- Petra: Rock-cut façades
- Petra: urban metropolis
- Petra: UNESCO Siq Project
- The Kaaba
- The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhra)
- The Great Mosque (or Masjid-e Jameh) of Isfahan
- Folio from a Qur'an
- Basin (Baptistère de Saint Louis)
- Bahram Gur Fights the Karg (Horned Wolf)
- Introduction to the court carpets of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires
- The Court of Gayumars
- Paradise in miniature, The Court of Kayumars — part 1
- Paradise in miniature, The Court of Kayumars — part 2
- The Ardabil Carpet
The Great Mosque (or Masjid-e Jameh) of Isfahan
Courtyard, The Great Mosque or Masjid-e Jameh of Isfahan
Most cities with sizable Muslim populations possess a primary congregational mosque. Diverse in design and dimensions, they can illustrate the style of the period or geographic region, the choices of the patron, and the expertise of the architect. Congregational mosques are often expanded in conjunction with the growth and needs of the umma, or Muslim community; however, it is uncommon for such expansion and modification to continue over a span of a thousand years. The Great Mosque of Isfahan in Iran is unique in this regard and thus enjoys a special place in the history of Islamic architecture. Its present configuration is the sum of building and decorating activities carried out from the 8th through the 20th centuries. It is an architectural documentary, visually embodying the political exigencies and aesthetic tastes of the great Islamic empires of Persia.
Street view of the Grand Bazaar of Isfahan with the Great Mosque dome in the distance. Photo: Saif Alnuweiri (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Another distinctive aspect of the mosque is its urban integration. Positioned at the center of the old city, the mosque shares walls with other buildings abutting its perimeter. Due to its immense size and its numerous entrances (all except one inaccessible now), it formed a pedestrian hub, connecting the arterial network of paths crisscrossing the city. Far from being an insular sacred monument, the mosque facilitated public mobility and commercial activity thus transcending its principal function as a place for prayer alone.
The mosque’s core structure dates primarily from the 11th century when the Seljuk Turks established Isfahan as their capital. Additions and alterations were made during Il-Khanid, Timurid, Safavid, and Qajar rule. An earlier mosque with a single inner courtyard already existed on the current location. Under the reign of Malik Shah I (ruled 1072-1092) and his immediate successors, the mosque grew to its current four-iwan design. Indeed, the Great Mosque of Isfahan is considered the prototype for future four-iwan mosques (an iwan is a vaulted space that opens on one side to a courtyard).
Plan of the mosque from Monuments modernes de la Perse mesurés, dessinés et décrits, éd. Morel, 1867
Linking the four iwans at the center is a large courtyard open to the air, which provides a tranquil space from the hustle and bustle of the city. Brick piers and columns support the roofing system and allow prayer halls to extend away from this central courtyard on each side. Aerial photographs of the building provide an interesting view; the mosque’s roof has the appearance of “bubble wrap” formed through the panoply of unusual but charming domes crowning its hypostyle interior.
Mosque, Isfahan, imagery ©2014 DigitalGlobe. Map data ©2014 Google
This simplicity of the earth-colored exterior belies the complexity of its internal decor. Dome soffits (undersides) are crafted in varied geometric designs and often include an oculus, a circular opening to the sky. Vaults, sometimes ribbed, offer lighting and ventilation to an otherwise dark space. Creative arrangement of bricks, intricate motifs in stucco, and sumptuous tile-work (later additions) harmonize the interior while simultaneously delighting the viewer at every turn. In this manner, movement within the mosque becomes a journey of discovery and a stroll across time.
View of the South Iwan from the Prayer Hall, Photo: Alan Cordova (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Given its sprawling expanse, one can imagine how difficult it would be to locate the correct direction for prayer. The qibla iwan on the southern side of the courtyard solves this conundrum. It is the only one flanked by two cylindrical minarets and also serves as the entrance to one of two large, domed chambers within the mosque. Similar to its three counterparts, this iwan sports colorful tile decoration and muqarnas or traditional Islamic cusped niches. The domed interior was reserved for the use of the ruler and gives access to the main mihrab of the mosque.
Muqarnas, South Iwan
The second domed room lies on a longitudinal axis right across the double-arcaded courtyard. This opposite placement and varied decoration underscores the political enmity between the respective patrons; each dome vies for primacy through its position and architectural articulation. Nizam al-Mulk, vizier to Malik Shah I, commissioned the qibla dome in 1086. But a year later, he fell out of favor with the ruler and Taj al-Mulk, his nemesis, with support from female members of the court, quickly replaced him. The new vizier’s dome (below), built in 1088, is smaller but considered a masterpiece of proportions.
Interior decoration of Taj-al-Mulk dome
When Shah Abbas I, a Safavid dynasty ruler, decided to move the capital of his empire from Qazvin to Isfahan in the late 16th century, he crafted a completely new imperial and mercantile center away from the old Seljuk city. While the new square and its adjoining buildings, renowned for their exquisite decorations, renewed Isfahan’s prestige among the early modern cities of the world, the significance of the Seljuk mosque and its influence on the population was not forgotten. This link amongst the political, commercial, social, and religious activities is nowhere more emphasized than in the architectural layout of Isfahan’s covered bazaar. Its massive brick vaulting and lengthy, sinuous route connects the Safavid center to the city’s ancient heart, the Great Mosque of Isfahan.
Essay by Dr. Radha Dalal
Want to join the conversation?
- Can you go and participate in a muslim festival if you are not Muslim?(8 votes)
- yes. ofcourse. like all the other religions islam is also a religion followed by humans. so if u are really intending to attend with no bad intentions then you are warmly welcome!(21 votes)
- Dr. Radha Dalal, I was wondering if this mosque actually allowed people to partake in business transaction within the mosque: "This link amongst the political, commercial, social, and religious activities is nowhere more emphasized than in the architectural layout of Isfahan’s covered bazaar.."
Where you mention that there is a "bazaar" within Isfahan, isn't that a marketplace? Is this common if I am not misunderstanding what you are saying?(1 vote)
- Consider the mosque as a centre piece, or a focal point, for a city. Foot traffic would pass through, and as a Friday Mosque it was an important social centre.
That being the case mosques often became civic centres. A complex of buildings, with the mosque as the most major, and separate entity, with other important buildings growing up around them.
There are other mosques with universities, hospitals, etc, built up around them, and considered as a single complex. However, business did not occur on the holy grounds of the mosque itself.
That's how I understand it to be anyways.(6 votes)
- Who was the architect of the Mosque?(1 vote)
- It's hard to say, because The mosque is the result of continual construction, reconstruction, additions and renovations on the site from around 771 to the end of the 20th century. Before it was a mosque, it was a Zoroastrian shrine. I imagine that the architect's name is lost in the fog of history.(4 votes)
- Do you know what the name of this mosque means?(2 votes)
- It means congregational mosque. It is also called Friday mosque because Friday is the off-day in many muslim countries and considered an eid.(1 vote)
- Beyond being a center for religious prayer, what other functions did this mosque have?(2 votes)
- What does the Imam Mosque have to do with the Sunni-Shiite split?(2 votes)
- What is the width and length of the mosque? (The Great Mosque (or Masjid-e Jameh))(2 votes)
- How was the mosque funded?(1 vote)
- Do you think the Bible and Koran has some similarity?(0 votes)
- Yes, but they both have different beliefs. The bible states that Jesus is son of God, while the Quran says that God can't have a son, for example.(7 votes)
- Is it true that if you are a muslim you cannot change religion?(2 votes)
- It's not true, you can always leave a religion it's just usually in almost every regilion if you leave the belief you might be shunned.(1 vote)