AP®︎/College Art History
- Key points for studying global prehistory
- Our earliest technology?
- Paleolithic art, an introduction
- Origins of rock art in Africa
- Apollo 11 Stones
- Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine
- Rock art in North Africa
- Running horned woman, Tassili n’Ajjer
- The Neolithic Revolution
- Bushel with ibex motifs
- Anthropomorphic stele
- Jade Cong
- Working jade
- Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites (UNESCO/NHK)
- Ambum Stone
- Tlatilco figurines
- Tlatilco Figurines
- Terracotta fragments, Lapita people
by Dr. Rex Koontz
We don’t know what the people here called themselves. Tlatilco, meaning “place of hidden things,” is a Nahuatl word, given to this “culture” later. Around 2000 B.C.E., maize, squash and other crops were domesticated, which allowed people to settle in villages. The settlement of Tlatilco was located close to a lake, and fishing and the hunting of birds became important food sources.
Archaeologists have found more than 340 burials at Tlatilco, with many more destroyed in the first half of the 20th century.
Double-faced female figure, early formative period, Tlatilco, 1200–900 B.C.E., ceramic with traces of pigment, 9.5 cm. high (Princeton University Art Museum)
Intimate and lively
Tlatilco figurines are wonderful small ceramic figures, often of women, found in Central Mexico. This is the region of the later and much better-known Aztec empire, but the people of Tlatilco flourished 2,000–3,000 years before the Aztec came to power in this Valley. Although Tlatilco was already settled by the Early Preclassic period (c. 1800–1200 B.C.E.), most scholars believe that the many figurines date from the Middle Preclassic period, or about 1200–400 B.C.E. Their intimate, lively poses and elaborate hairstyles are indicative of the already sophisticated artistic tradition. This is remarkable given the early dates. Ceramic figures of any sort were widespread for only a few centuries before the appearance of Tlatilco figurines.
The Tlatilco figurine at the Princeton University Art Museum has several traits that directly relate to many other Tlatilco female figures: the emphasis on the wide hips, the spherical upper thighs, and the pinched waist. Many Tlatilco figurines also show no interest in the hands or feet, as we see here. Artists treated hairstyles with great care and detail, however, suggesting that it was hair and its styling was important for the people of Tlatilco, as it was for many peoples of this region. This figurine not only shows an elaborate hairstyle, but shows it for two connected heads (on the single body). We have other two-headed female figures from Tlatilco, but they are rare when compared with the figures that show a single head. It is very difficult to know exactly why the artist depicted a bicephalic (two-headed) figure (as opposed to the normal single head), as we have no documents or other aids that would help us define the meaning. It may be that the people of Tlatilco were interested in expressing an idea of duality, as many scholars have argued.
Double-faced female figurine, early formative period, Tlatilco, 1200–900 B.C.E., ceramic with traces of pigment, 9.5 cm. high (Princeton University Art Museum)
The makers of Tlatilco figurines lived in a large farming villages near the great inland lake in the center of the basin of Mexico. Modern Mexico City sits on top of the remains of the village, making archaeological work difficult. We don’t know what the village would have looked beyond the basic shape of the common house—a mud and reed hut that was the favored house design of many early peoples of Mexico. We do know that most of the inhabitants made their living by growing maize (corn) and taking advantage of the rich lake resources nearby. Some of the motifs found on other Tlatilco ceramics, such as ducks and fish, would have come directly from their lakeside surroundings.
Reconstruction, house from the basin of Mexico, c. 1500 B.C.E.
Shaman, Middle Preclassic (1200-600 B.C.E.), Tlatilco, 9.5 cm high (National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City)
Male figures are rare
Tlatilco artists rarely depicted males, but when they did the males were often wearing costumes and even masks. Masks were very rare on female figures; most female figures stress hairstyle and/or body paint. Thus the male figures seem to be valued more for their ritual roles as priests or other religious specialists, while the religious role of the females is less clear but was very likely present.
How they were found
In the first half of the 20th century, a great number of graves were found by brick-makers mining clay in the area. These brick-makers would often sell the objects—many of them figurines—that came out of these graves to interested collectors. Later archaeologists were able to dig a number of complete burials, and they too found a wealth of objects buried with the dead. The objects that were found in largest quantities—and that enchanted many collectors and scholars of ancient Mexico—were the ceramic figurines.
Tlatilco figurine, c. 1200–600 B.C.E., ceramic, Tlatilco, Mesoamerica (National Museum of Anthropology)
Unlike some later Mexican figurines, those of Tlatilco were made exclusively by hand, without relying on molds. It is important to think, then, about the consistent mastery shown by the artists of many of these figurines. The main forms were created through pinching the clay and then shaping it by hand, while some of the details were created by a sharp instrument cutting linear motifs onto the wet clay. The forms of the body were depicted in a specific proportion that, while non-naturalistic, was striking and effective. The artist was given a very small space (most figures are less than 15 cm high) in which to create elaborate hairstyles. Even for today’s viewer, the details in this area are endlessly fascinating. The pieces have a nice finish, and the paint that must indicate body decoration was firmly applied (when it is preserved, as in the two-headed figure above). Many scholars doubt that there were already full-time artists in such farming villages, but it is certain that the skills necessary to function as an artist in the tradition were passed down and mastered over generations.
Essay by Dr. Rex Koontz
Want to join the conversation?
- I wonder if the figurine at the top could be of a pair of actual Olmec conjoined diprosopus twins?(19 votes)
I think you may be correct. Perhaps the twins were considered to have special powers, as opposed to our Western perspective, that most likely would have seen the twins as being grotesque.(1 vote)
- why are male figurines rare(4 votes)
- No, women probably were more important to their society. In Native American culture, the men hunted and performed medicinal rituals, and the women did almost everything else.(5 votes)
- so what is the main function of the figurines(4 votes)
- They are beautiful. They evoke emotional responses in folks who view them. They do not need to function as anything more than that.(1 vote)
- Does anyone else see 5 eyes? It clearly looks like there is an eye in each mouth--and not just in this piece, but in others as well.(4 votes)
- In your opinion, why would be important for this community to replicate daily day actions in ceramic?(2 votes)
- I think people who COULD make them were showing their craftsmanship skills, and having fun while they were at it. Since you've asked MY opinion, Andrea, what's yours?(3 votes)
- How can we know for sure how old they are?(2 votes)
- The primary way that figurines are dated is by a test called thermoluminescence (TL) which determines the accumulated radiation dose of the object. Another method being developed looks for moisture reabsorbed by the object and it is called Rehydroxylation (RHX).(4 votes)
- I think the conjoined twins where to show the diffrence between the people. Siamese twins were very uncommon and probably something everyone would gawk at. correct? What do yall think. They are however verty well hand crafted.(1 vote)
- I find it unlikely that these are Siamese twins, as Siamese twins often have all of their own body parts and are simply attached by soft tissue. A semi-bicephalic person such as this would not likely survive to term as an embryo, much less be born at all. I believe it is more likely to be symbolic.(2 votes)
- In the Appearance paragraph there seems to be a misspelling of the word female written “femaile”, I looked it up in case it was a real word but it doesn’t seem to be.(1 vote)
- what was the artist name that made Tlatilco Figurines(1 vote)
- I wonder if they left the arms/hands out because they emphasized on what they thought was the most beautiful parts of the body? (hips, waist)(1 vote)