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Giotto, Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel (part 2)

Part 2: The Narrative Cycle from Giotto's Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, Padua, c. 1305 Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.

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  • mr pink red style avatar for user Monte` Rainwater
    At , if Judas is (or was) an apostle why doesn't he have a halo like the others? At what point would it have disappeared? Were halos supposed to be visible to the people in the paintings?
    (7 votes)
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  • piceratops ultimate style avatar for user Ari Mendelson
    At , there is a depiction of Roman soldiers. They certainly don't look like they're dressed as Roman soldiers to me. It seems highly likely that this is anachronism. My question is this: did Giotto's contemporaries in the military dress the way the soldiers are depicted in that painting? Is that where he got the idea to paint them like that?
    (8 votes)
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  • orange juice squid orange style avatar for user Kutili
    What is the golden legend? Who wrote it? Is it part of canon in any branch of Christianity?
    (4 votes)
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    • aqualine tree style avatar for user David Alexander
      So, I went back and looked at the video, in which, during the first minute, the origin of the Golden legend is described as some non-canonical literature which sought to fill in the parts of the story which are not found in the scripture, such as, "who were Mary's parents and what happened to them?" No, the legend is not canon for anyone, it's just nice legend. You could make up your own!
      (5 votes)
  • leafers seedling style avatar for user Rachel VanDusen
    At Dr. Steven Zucker talks about chiaroscuro. What is chiaroscuro?
    (2 votes)
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  • purple pi purple style avatar for user Residuum
    Are the black bars that run horizontally across the roofline part of the original construction or are they an addition to provide support?
    (3 votes)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user Douglas Bonneville
    In the Arrest panel, is the sky area split between sky and a distant hill? Or was the sky area all sky, but we see more blue having flaked off the lower area than the upper because the paint mixture might have been different? It seems almost surgical how the blue has fallen off the lower area. So it seems it's either a hill, or an unintended poor chemical bond because the blue mixture, or the plaster mixture in that area was different than the top part of the sky.
    (3 votes)
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    • leaf green style avatar for user Stuart W
      That's a good point. It's possible that we see the Mount of Olives later replaced by lapis lazuli, it might not have been available when this was first painted - since the story goes that after the last supper, Jesus and the Disciples went up to the Mount of Olives and when they came down, Judas met Jesus with a kiss and the roman army as well. The Mount of Olives is also in other depictions of this same event, which lends that theory some credibility. Although usually we see it more angled into the frame than just resting above the figures. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fra_Angelico_020.jpg
      (2 votes)
  • leafers ultimate style avatar for user Scott
    Was the story of Joachim discussed at the very beginning of this video an adjunct to the Bible, or was it merely one of many volumes that was 'cut' from the final version, as we know to be the case with some others?
    (1 vote)
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    • male robot hal style avatar for user mafricanoI94
      it was not cut from the Bible, it just wasn't chosen to be part of the Bible because it was shown to be written after a certain date (the death of the last Apsotle John, and thus the end of public revelation). However, sacred tradition does give us the story of St. Anne and St. Joachim.
      (5 votes)
  • blobby green style avatar for user Clif Brown
    At the center near the top, high above Christ and Judas, is what appears to be a small opening with a candle inside. What is the significance of this?
    (2 votes)
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  • blobby green style avatar for user Ubaldo DiBenedetto
    The frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel are NOT original artistic creations. The 39 frescoes are ACCURATE copies of the 39 scenes of the mystery plays (Sacre Rappresentazioni) performed on a wooden stage mounted near the Chapel in the Roman Arena.
    I can document how two components of the wooden stage are VISIBLE, as are three staging techniques unique of the medieval theater. I am Ubaldo DiBenedetto, Professor Emeritus, Harvard University. Email me if you would like to read the recently completed study: ubaldod@verizon.net
    (1 vote)
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Video transcript

(swing piano music) - [Male Narrator] The narrative cycle begins on the right altar side in the top register. It introduces Joachim and Anna, the grandparents of Christ. - [Female Narrator] Mary's parents. - [Male Narrator] Joachim begins by being thrown out of the temple. - [Female Narrator] For his childlessness. - [Male Narrator] He's grown old without children. Don't take this too literally, it's not in the Bible. These are the extra stories that were added to the biblical narrative because people wanted to know what happened in between the events that really are mentioned in the Bible. - [Female Narrator] Much of this is from a book called the "Golden Legend" that filled in that narrative. - [Male Narrator] Let's focus on the last scene of the upper register, which is The Meeting at the Golden Gate. To get here, what's happened is that Joachim has prayed to God really wanting a child. Anna, his wife, has done the same, and they've both been visited and been told that there is hope. Joachim is shown in the wilderness with his sheep, he's a shepherd. Anna is shown at home. And they're shown coming together for the first time in front of Jerusalem, in front of the golden gate. - [Female Narrator] Each now with the awareness that their desire for a child has been fulfilled. - [Male Narrator] We see their faces together. It is a kiss, it is incredibly intimate. It's so personal, their faces come together, they touch and almost become a single face. - [Female Narrator] We sense the warmth of their embrace, the warmth of the figures around them who watch, and figures who have mass and volume to their bodies, who exist three-dimensionally in space. Gone are the elongated, swaying, ethereal bodies of the Gothic period. And Giotto gives us figures that are bulky and monumental, where drapery pulls around their bodies. And taken together with the emotion in their faces, it's almost like we have real human beings in art for the first time in more than 1,000 years. - [Male Narrator] Giotto, we think, was Cimabue's student, and learned from that great master who had begun to experiment with the chiaroscuro, this light and shadow, this ability to model volume and form and mass, but nothing like what Giotto has achieved here. It is the coming together of both the chiaroscuro, as well as the emotion, as well as the human interaction that creates the sense of the importance of our existence here on Earth. - [Female Narrator] And I would also add the clarity of the gestures, and the narrative. - [Male Narrator] Look at the way in which the city is not rendered in an accurate way. We have a schematic view, and yet it's everything we need. We have the gate of Jerusalem. Now, of course, Giotto had no idea what the architecture of Jerusalem looked like. Yet, from legend, he has created this golden arch and this medieval-looking fortified city. - [Female Narrator] But the forms are simplified. - [Male Narrator] It's a stage set, and he wants those figures to be front and center. They are what's most important. If we move across to the other wall, the upper register continues the narrative. Mary is born, she's presented in the temple, she's married, and then we get back to the altar side of the chapel, and there we reach the triumphal arch. And we're back to God the father now, but below that we have the Annunciation. - [Female Narrator] In the register below, now, we see scenes from Christ's childhood, including... - [Male Narrator] The Circumcision, the Flight into Egypt. - [Female Narrator] The Massacre of the Innocents. And then moving to the next wall, we begin the story of the ministry of Christ and his miracles. - [Male Narrator] We have Christ preaching to the doctors in the temple, the Baptism, and one of my favorites, The Raising of Lazarus. - [Female Narrator] And then the entry of Christ into Jerusalem. - [Male Narrator] As the story unfolds from scene to scene, Christ is often shown in profile, which is derived from the Roman tradition of coinage, which is the most noble way of representing a figure. And he's shown moving from left to right, which is the way that we're meant to read the scenes. - [Female Narrator] So Giotto is helping us to move through the narrative from one scene to the next. And here we see Christ on a donkey with the apostles behind him. - [Male Narrator] You'll notice that Giotto does not care to depict every single one of the 12 apostles. He's really giving us only three or four faces, and the rest are just like an accumulation of halos. - [Female Narrator] There's that legacy of symbolic representation that we think of as more medieval. - [Male Narrator] Symbolic representation is also clearly evident in the way that the gate of the city of Jerusalem is shown once again. We last saw it with the kiss in front of the golden gate, and now we see Christ entering. And so there's a continuity. Look at the way in which the figures in the lower right begin to pull off their outer garment. One man is pulling his arm out of his sleeve, the next is taking the garment off his head, and the final one is placing that garment at the feet of the donkey in an act of respect. But it is almost cinemagraphic, that is, part of the chapel as a whole is about the movement of time. This is one of the most innovative aspects of the entire chapel, I think. - [Female Narrator] We also have a sense of the figures pouring out of the gate of the city, welcoming Christ, and a real humanity to their excitement at seeing Christ. - [Male Narrator] If you look at Christ, there is a blue garment that's wrapped around his waist, but the blue is almost entirely missing, and that's because the Arena Chapel is painted in buon fresco, true fresco, that is, pigment is applied to wet plaster. - [Female Narrator] And when that happens, the pigment binds to the plaster, and the paint becomes literally part of the wall. - [Male Narrator] That's right, the wall is stained. The problem is that blue was really expensive. Ultramarine blue came from lapis lazuli, which was a very expensive semi-precious stone. And Enrico Scrovegni, when he drew up the contract with Giotto, did not want the blue's brilliance to be diminished by being mixed with the plaster. So he asked that it be applied as secco fresco. - [Female Narrator] Dry fresco. - [Male Narrator] On top of the wall. - [Female Narrator] It didn't adhere to the wall as well as the paint that was applied to the wet plaster. And so sadly, that's been flaked off, and we have to use our imagination to fill in a brilliant blue on that drapery. - [Male Narrator] Let's move on to the bottom register, to the end of Christ's life. On the lowest register, the register that's devoted to the scenes of the Passion, is the Arrest of Christ, also known as the Kiss of Judas. - [Female Narrator] So this is the moment when Judas leads the Romans to Christ, and they arrest him, and take him away, and torture him, and ultimately crucify him. Judas is one of the 12 apostles, one of those considered closest to Christ. He betrays him for 30 pieces of silver. - [Male Narrator] And so it is all the more horrific, a terrible betrayal, because this is one of the people that Christ trusted most. And Judas has betrayed Christ, not by pointing at him from afar, but with a kiss. The embrace is really important. Look at the way that Giotto has the figure of Judas' arm and cloak wrapping around him, embracing him, enveloping him, and importantly, stopping him. Remember that, in almost every scene, we have noticed Christ moving from left to right in profile. But here, Judas is an impediment. His progress is stopped. This is literally arresting his movement forward. - [Female Narrator] If we compare this, for example, to Duccio's "Betrayal of Christ," there, Christ is frontal. Here, he's in profile. It makes it so that Judas and Christ look at one another, look at each other in the eye. Judas is a little bit shorter, he looks up at Christ, there's a sense of, to me, determination, but also maybe a hint of beginning to be sorry for what he's done. - [Male Narrator] But still corruption in that face versus the nobility of Christ's features. - [Female Narrator] And a sense that Christ knew that this would happen, right? At the Last Supper he said, "One of you will betray me." And an acceptance of his destiny that we often see in images of Christ. There's also chaos here. - [Male Narrator] Giotto has created this sense of violence by reserving half the painting, the sky, just for those lances, torches, clubs, and the way in which they're not held in an orderly way, but they are helter-skelter, crossing at angles. They create this violent visual rhythm that draws our eye down to Christ, down to Judas, but also feel dangerous. - [Female Narrator] But there's a sense of Judas and Christ anchoring the composition down as that chaos takes place around him. The most remarkable figure to me, though, is the figure in that pale purple who leans his left side of his body and his elbow out of the composition almost right into our space. - [Male Narrator] It's amazing, and it almost prefigures the way that Caravaggio, who centuries later will master this idea of breaking the picture plane. - [Female Narrator] And then we also see another device that Giotto employees often in the Arena Chapel, and that is a figure with his back to us. And that figure seems to be pulling something that's out of the space of the panel. But look at his feet, perfectly foreshortened, grounded, there's that sense of Giottoesque weight and monumentality to the figures, all of that modeling as we can follow the forms of the body underneath. - [Male Narrator] And Giotto is giving us this full sensory experience. We have this crowd of figures, the sense of violence. The crowd has multiplied because we can see numerous helmets, which by the way would have originally been silver, but have oxidized. - [Female Narrator] And there's a sense of a crowd pressing in, of all these faces watching what's going to happen. - [Male Narrator] And there's one man blowing on a horn, creating this sense of energy, this audio that goes with this painting that finishes the whole scene, and it's chaos, and it's anger, and it's drama. - [Female Narrator] Giotto is a master of the dramatic. (swing piano music)