AP®︎/College Art History
- Ancient Egypt, an introduction
- Ancient Egyptian art
- Palette of King Narmer
- Seated Scribe
- The Great Pyramids of Giza
- Pyramid of Khufu
- Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Sphinx
- Pyramid of Menkaure
- King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and queen
- Temple of Amun-Re and the Hypostyle Hall, Karnak
- Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut and Large Kneeling Statue, New Kingdom, Egypt
- Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis (UNESCO/TBS)
- Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Three Daughters
- Tutankhamun’s tomb (innermost coffin and death mask)
- Last Judgement of Hunefer, from his tomb
- Hunefer, Book of the Dead
by Dr. Amy Calvert
The Great Pyramids at Giza, Egypt (photo: KennyOMG, CC BY-SA 4.0)
One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
The last remaining of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, the great pyramids of Giza, are perhaps the most famous and discussed structures in history. These massive monuments were unsurpassed in height for thousands of years after their construction and continue to amaze and enthrall us with their overwhelming mass and seemingly impossible perfection. Their exacting orientation and mind-boggling construction has elicited many theories about their origins, including unsupported suggestions that they had extra-terrestrial impetus. However, by examining the several hundred years prior to their emergence on the Giza plateau, it becomes clear that these incredible structures were the result of many experiments, some more successful than others, and represent an apogee in line with the development of the royal mortuary complex.
Pyramid of Khafre (photo: MusikAnimal, CC BY-SA 3.0)
Three pyramids, three rulers
The three primary pyramids on the Giza plateau were built over the span of three generations by the rulers Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. Each pyramid was part of a royal mortuary complex that also included a temple at its base and a long stone causeway (some nearly 1 kilometer in length) leading east from the plateau to a valley temple on the edge of the floodplain.
The causeway of the Khafre (Chephren) pyramid complex, taken from the entrance of the Khafre Valley Temple (photo: Hannah Pethen, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Other (smaller) pyramids, and small tombs
In addition to these major structures, several smaller pyramids belonging to queens are arranged as satellites. A large cemetery of smaller tombs, known as mastabas (Arabic for ‘bench’ in reference to their shape—flat-roofed, rectangular, with sloping sides), fills the area to the east and west of the pyramid of Khufu. These were arranged in a grid-like pattern and constructed for prominent members of the court. Being buried near the pharaoh was a great honor and helped ensure a prized place in the Afterlife.
Map of Giza pyramid complex (map by: MesserWoland, CC BY-SA 3.0)
A reference to the sun
The shape of the pyramid was a solar reference, perhaps intended as a solidified version of the rays of the sun. Texts talk about the sun’s rays as a ramp the pharaoh mounts to climb to the sky—the earliest pyramids, such as the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara—were actually designed as a staircase. The pyramid was also clearly connected to the sacred ben-ben stone, an icon of the primeval mound that was considered the place of initial creation. The pyramid was viewed as a place of regeneration for the deceased ruler.
View up the side of Khufu's pyramid showing scale of the core blocks (Photo: Amy Calvert)
Many questions remain about the construction of these massive monuments, and theories abound as to the actual methods used. The workforce needed to build these structures is also still much discussed. Discovery of a town for workers to the south of the plateau has offered some answers. It is likely that there was a permanent group of skilled craftsmen and builders who were supplemented by seasonal crews of approximately 2000 conscripted peasants. These crews were divided into gangs of 200 men, with each group further divided into teams of 20. Experiments indicate that these groups of 20 men could haul the 2.5 ton blocks from quarry to pyramid in about 20 minutes, their path eased by a lubricated surface of wet silt. An estimated 340 stones could be moved daily from quarry to construction site, particularly when one considers that many of the blocks (such as those in the upper courses) were considerably smaller.
We are used to seeing the pyramids at Giza in alluring photographs, where they appear as massive and remote monuments rising up from an open, barren desert. Visitors might be surprised to find, then, that there is a golf course and resort only a few hundred feet from the Great Pyramid, and that the burgeoning suburbs of Giza (part of the greater metropolitan area of Cairo) have expanded right up to the foot of the Sphinx. This urban encroachment and the problems that come with it—such as pollution, waste, illegal activities, and auto traffic—are now the biggest threats to these invaluable examples of global cultural heritage.
Aerial view of the Giza pyramid complex and development nearby (photo: © Raimond Spekking, CC BY-SA 4.0)
The pyramids were inscribed into the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979, and since 1990, the organization has sponsored over a dozen missions to evaluate their status. It has supported the restoration of the Sphinx, as well as measures to curb the impact of tourism and manage the growth of the neighboring village. Still, threats to the site continue: air pollution from waste incineration contributes to the degradation of the stones, and the massive illegal quarrying of sand on the neighboring plateau has created holes large enough to be seen on Google Earth. Egypt’s 2011 uprisings and their chaotic political and economic aftermath also negatively impacted tourism, one of the country’s most important industries, and the number of visitors is only now beginning to rise once more.
UNESCO has continually monitored these issues, but its biggest task with regard to Giza has been to advocate for the rerouting of a highway that was originally slated to cut through the desert between the pyramids and the necropolis of Saqqara to the south. The government eventually agreed to build the highway north of the pyramids. However, as the Cairo metropolitan area (the largest in Africa, with a population of over 20 million) continues to expand, planners are now proposing a multilane tunnel to be constructed underneath the Giza Plateau. UNESCO and ICOMOS are calling for in-depth studies of the project’s potential impact, as well as an overall site management plan for the Giza pyramids that would include ways to halt the continued impact of illegal dumping and quarrying.
As massive as they are, the pyramids at Giza are not immutable. With the rapid growth of Cairo, they will need sufficient attention and protection if they are to remain intact as key touchstones of ancient history.
Backstory by Dr. Naraelle Hohensee
Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids, Thames and Hudson, 2008.
Essay by Dr. Amy Calvert
Want to join the conversation?
- Does anyone really believe that the building of the pyramids "had extra-terrestrial impetus"?(10 votes)
- Well I don't know about believe it, but there are enough people interested in the idea that there is a series called Ancient Aliens http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens which actually is in it's 6th season! so it's been around for a minute. It is just a continuation of a field of study thats called PalleoSETI, that was really kicked off by both Erich von Daniken http://www.daniken.com/ & Zecharia Sitchin http://www.sitchin.com/ back in the 60's with their books Chariots of the gods, and the 12th planet respectively, and followed up latter by Drunvalo Melchizedek http://www.drunvalo.net/ The Ancient Secret of the Flower of Life. Hope this helps, T.S.
P.S. the fascinating thing about these ideas to me is they are not new, they've been around with people knowing what's up up all the way back to when it was actually happening, and we're just now stumbling onto it, but others have known about, been thinking about, and considering this stuff since it happened, in some cases maybe even before, yet here we are thousand of years latter just now coming across the idea ourselves for the first time.(19 votes)
- I feel the only reason people believe that the work was aided by ET is the continual propagation of untruths or half truths.
Statements such as, "We could not build a structure like this today.", or "We have know idea how they were so accurate in their measurements."(12 votes)
- In dutch we call them the pyramids of Cheops, Chefren and Mykerinos instead of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. I suppose we use the Greek names, correct me if i'm wrong. But why is that? Wouldn't it be clearer if the same names were used globally?(10 votes)
- The Greek names were commonly used in English as well until about 20 years ago. It is a bit confusing at first but we are speaking of Egyptians, not Greeks.(10 votes)
- What does it mean by "Rock Cut Tombs"?(3 votes)
- I personally find the pyramids very interesting, but I have always wondered how they set the traps inside and safely got out of the pyramids without setting one off. also what would Egyptians do if we did find the wealth left for the pharaohs(3 votes)
- Those are really good questions!
Although many Egyptian antiquities were taken out of the country many years ago, today whatever is found in Egypt would likely stay there. One of the world's leading Egyptologists is actually Egyptian himself, and he used to head the country's department of antiquities. The country is also planning a Grand Egyptian Museum near Giza.
New tombs and treasures continue to be discovered - here is an article about several discoveries in 2017:
As for booby traps, they are kind of a myth: most tombs had obstacles like stone slabs but no real booby traps. Prevention against grave robbers included the death penalty for those caught, as well as curses placed on anyone entering the tomb.
However, this video is has a lot of information about the practice of tomb raiding in ancient Egypt, and also tells how the treasures of the pharoahs were "recycled":
Hope this helps!(4 votes)
- Id like to know how in the world the ancient Egyptians could build things this high. I mean, they probably had ladders, but Egypt has a dry climate and it would take a lot of tees to have wood to build a ladder that high.(3 votes)
- According to E. Raymond Capt in his book "The Great Pyramid Decoded", the Egyptians could've used logs underneath the huge stone blocks to make heaving the blocks easier. The Great Pyramid is also by the Nile River, meaning that the Egyptians would've used long boats to move the blocks across the river, making their job even easier. Hope this helps you, and I highly recommend you read all of Capt's books!(2 votes)
- Why do queen,s pyramids have to be built differently?(2 votes)
- Egyptian pharaohs had many wives so they could not all have a huge pyramid. Also because there were many queens but only one pharaoh he had more status.(4 votes)
- If it took about 10 years to build a pyramid wouldn't that be kind of morbid, for the Pharaoh? I mean there's this huge tomb waiting for him. Waiting, waiting waiting....
Boogie boogie boogie.. Anyway what would happen if the Pharaoh died halfway through the construction? You can't just keep a dead body around for years, besides germs and such that'll smell. So what would they do?(2 votes)
- Keep in mind that, to the Egyptians, these weren't morbid reminders of death, but rather a sort of pathway to the stars. There were definitely kings that died before their monuments were completed; we have several examples of partially finished or very hastily completed royal tombs. The three kings associated with the Great Pyramids, however, started early in their reigns and lived until after they were.(3 votes)
- How could they even make something so big with the stuff they had back then.(2 votes)
- They put a lot of little pieces together, and eventually something big resulted. Kind of like how Aaron the priest threw a bunch of little pieces of gold into an oven, and a statue of a calf popped out (at least, that's how HE told the story).(2 votes)
- Does anybody ever wonder if all these scientific questions and answers about ET are made up i know that some of its real but help me understand if its true or not?(2 votes)
- What is the relation between the "scientific questions and answers about ET" and the Great Pyramids of Giza in this lesson? If you can help me see how these are related, maybe I can help you understand the question.(1 vote)