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imagine how beautiful must've been wearing all this monumental arches colored travertine and all the statues and you defer sometimes spilling out water reflecting the light on the travertine are we making about this more like the way we think today about Lincoln Center with fountain in the middle and gleaming start off by talking a little bit about the structure and how it was built to imagine that goes through as a gigantic don't have inside at the arena arena original Adam and send on the floor where gladiators we're finding bit used to absorb blood and body fluids you know like a gigantic at leader if you think about it between different 5 they could simply clean off a reason original name of this bill nichols not Coliseum Coliseum is only caning given leader not because he was a colossal monument body because he was locating the proximity of a colossal statue originally of mirror was part of the declaration of his house and so what time the nickname was given by the expressivity originally was actually Flavian amphitheatre and this is something very typical even if you think about american monuments you at the Lincoln Center you have the Rockefeller Center they're connected the name of the family that paid for to build the Flavian family paid for the building of the Coliseum Flavian amphitheatre is just a technical name for the shape is simply means in Greek about herbal tea at the original Greek theaters were actually semi circle with a flat end by the stage and so this is really just putting those two together by using arches and concrete Romans were able to build a man pts or even a double tier there with seeds on a flat surface engineering behind it it's absolutely astonishing considering that it was only built in 10 years they call assume could hold between 50,000 and 80,000 people and if you look at the actual top part of each of their ground for artists you see a Roman number they're very dark you can see at 23 and then there's a 24 and there is a 25 their progressive and Islam would have been written undertaking given to the rebels like modern stadium you will have a science eat again number also the city was it was extremely important for the Romans in the city where San according to their status she had the most important people call Serena and the least important being the women on the top floor he actually see this style of the goals of 43 story arches and then another story afford Flory with Windows so it's close with small windows inside it and if you look at this artist that are framed by columns at the bottom part of God's call to scanning at similar to dark but it's more local and italics time I mean diary columns have a base won't ask Anna Collins do have a base and are not included not then you go to the hanukkah story and they are two columns actually are there were considered the most feminine of the columns go their proportion were more slandering would be valued on the top and the women's and the top throw you got the Corinthian they're based on their campus pan am a virgin assumed wrong you can find many gardens is selected very nice green leaves and so 10 imitation of a piece of stone carved with leaves of Wrath inside each of the arches on the second and third floor there will be a statue and on the top floor there will be probably brands the shield on top alternating the windows we imagine it goes another donut outside circle was that would block for travertine the east side of the donor was that would occur of concrete 20 mins really perfected concrete and really were the first to use it as real structural material and that was critical for their ability to create structures of this size also something like the Pantheon all the development of Concord was crucial for two main reasons the first one is is to work with cut stone marble travertine even too fast or you need space analyzed workers because you need to know out of courtesy if you get it the wrong way the song would crumble into your head right we don't create in make it possible for not specialized workers to produce something that's more sturdy at the same time is less expensive you know to quit blocks of marble is not that she was completely assembled everywhere even you just need a little more order and few pieces of stone to make it a brigade and walk it's very easy but at the same time it's more elastic we can create you get it up more space because it's something liek wit and it is simply more love the way you want and so the idea would be to take a wooden framework that framed out the space that you want did and then to pour concrete into that wouldn't know exactly we then would be covered with a declaration it could be breaks taco whatever you want to really loud for far more monumental structures and that that would then be economically and physically feasible and less expensive and quick you note any other consumers quite an accomplishment because they use mostly concrete and also a kind of thinking about architecture in a new way in terms of shaping and interior space but do you like in two years because if you look at Greek architecture you look at the temples the inside of the temple is quite marrow if you think the Pantheon you just that in these amazing fear and that's why they really invented a Dell moved in on the outside but inside to be able to produce a bow their could permit to have a space 3 of standing columns in the middle to support the roof moving away from post and lintel architecture and interior space which really in a sense almost double the architectural vocabulary and created it and advancement over a system that had existed for thousands of years Romans they employ concrete under such a scale that permit them to build wherever they wanted they were not force by this space Prix cannot be the day whatever they wanted they needed a slope so what if you will two day without slopes know the other for you right promised we're able to protective of you there on that video there or a suit or a bath complex wherever they want it to mean it's true that the Greek seem to use natural features and in a more passive way whereas the Roman seem to shape the landscape much more aggressively you talked about the fact that there have been a lake here let's drain the lake were putting a building here that is nature becomes in the service of man rather than vice versa that's a good point the fact is that they want to be able to shape their space so the idea of urban planning a week you could build the city the way you wanted to and not just be subject to the landscape that was there but I think this really important way in which the rooms are thinking of themselves as powers in the landscape having that sort of dominance and it seems to me that the Roma shaped in a way that speaks of that notion of their own inherent strength why did was different about the Roman society they were not a racist and they said they were looking at the color of your skin didn't care less about that it was a multicultural society mean they were bought romance from africa Romans from Turkey Roman France Germany while many different was where you are sitting there or not if you were not a citizen UN nobody but if you were a kid then the color of his skin was not important but there were fine distinctions even within citizenship social classes what in through an interesting aspect was that you could move along the social scale while for Greeks a few you cannot even up choir students she was extremely rare to obtain citizenship for the Romans even a slave who become first the freemen and then his children will become full seeded then for wrong thing about america last second generation immigrants everything made me realize that being able to move and then able to forgive people a chance in life can make all the difference in the economy