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Dionysus the god of wine didn't like to be lonely he was surrounded by satyrs and by mean ads he loved to party I can't party alone no you can't party alone and of course the satyrs would become tired sometimes after they drank a bit too much and that's exactly the subject of the Barberini faun that we're looking at now a satyr is not a human being he's me look human to us but he's in Greek mythology part animal really that's right he's a subhuman the hierarchy of the gods were the gods of Mount Olympus at the top and you had heroes that were half divine and half human then you had humans and then you had subhumans and even below that monsters a satyr would be a subhuman and if you look really closely you can tell that although he looks quite human in most ways he's got a tail pointy ears and sometimes this is even represented with hooves yeah you can see the tail actually coming from behind his left thigh that's where I first noticed it and for the Greeks these particular subhumans the satyrs were half civilized and half wild and so it was a wonderful way to express the uncultivated the kind of barbaric qualities of human nature his name is the Barberini faun not really a faun is really more a satyr but he's called the Barberini faun because when he was discovered in Rome near the Castel Sant'Angelo in 1625 the Pope at the time was from the Barberini family and everyone recognized how spectacular this figure was and the Pope said well I officially declare this to be part of my family collection he wanted to do that because it was so important not only is it just a stellar example of sculpture but we think that this actually dates to the 3rd century BCE and that it is an original Greek sculpture although it's always very hard to tell whether something is a Greek original or a later Roman copy it could be a terrific copy we do know though that at least a portion of it has been restored and you can see those restorations quite clearly in the lower part of left thigh and almost the entire right leg and foot so the spectacular sculpture ended up here in Munich when it was acquired by Prince Ludwig of Bavaria in the early 19th century quite a sculpture to add to his collection for his new Museum it's an amazing thing to think that this was likely found in the moat of Hadrian's Tomb in what is now Castle Saint Angelo in Rome I imagine people were vying to purchase this it's incredibly erotic this figure has his legs spread he's in a drunken half sleeping half awake state well you can see that in his body on the one hand it's absolute exhaustion he is just dead tired but on the other side you can see the agitation of his body there's tension there look at that right leg the way it's pushed up now that part is a restoration but we know that that's pretty much the placement because of the rock on which it's at and you can see from his face too that there's a combination of exhaustion and restlessness well look at that face it is just spectacularly sensitive and I love the fact that it's not symmetrical his head is pushed over to the side and if you look at his cheeks straight on it you can see that gravity is compressing the right side of his face and it's expanding the left side and so there really is this intense naturalism this observation of the elastic qualities of the human body now we're in the Hellenistic period where ancient Greek artists are expanding their subject matter so we don't just have the heroic ideal athletic nudes that we saw in the Classical period but here the artist exploring more emotional states more varieties of subject matter that's right sometimes this is even referred to as the Hellenistic Baroque because of its willingness to remove the preserve that we associate with a high Classical period before he's certainly not reserved I mean you would not at all so what are the other accoutrements what are the other symbols that identify him as a satyr as if the tail and the ears and the want and abandoned quality wasn't enough you can see that he's laid out a leopard-skin he's on a rock and it's certainly protecting him from the roughness of the rock and you can see that he's even keeping his heel on it it's softer and he's rolled it up a little bit under his arm so that it functions somewhat like a cushion although it is a little bit hard for me to imagine him walking up to this rock laying down the leopard skin and somehow lying on it it's a conceit it is so you said that this is Hellenistic and it certainly is in so many ways but it is clearly informed by the classical tradition that had come before it in terms of its treatment of the human body and its attention to musculature and anatomy absolutely and I think that's really clear in the torso we can see the foals of his flesh in his abdomen or the careful articulation of the muscles and the shoulders and the armpit this is an amazing understanding of human anatomy but it is also a little bit off-kilter you can see that the ribcage is pushing a little bit to his left and so the whole thing has a gentle turn to it making it even more complex there is a turn in the torso and we see that in other ancient Greek sculptures like the Belvedere a torso and although this was found a hundred years after Michelangelo or a little bit less you can see how that kind of twisting and torsion in the body was something that Michelangelo would pick up on I think if Michelangelo had ever had had the opportunity to see this he would have absolutely loved it no question you