Ancient Mediterranean + Europe
- Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
- Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer)
- Polykleitos, Doryphoros
- Myron, Discobolus (Discus Thrower), Roman copy of an ancient Greek bronze
- The Athenian Agora and the experiment in democracy
- Parthenon (Acropolis)
- The Parthenon
- Destruction, Memory, and Monuments: The Many Lives of the Parthenon
- Phidias, Parthenon sculptures (pediments, metopes and frieze)
- Who owns the Parthenon sculptures?
- Egyptian blue on the Parthenon sculptures
- "Plaque of the Ergastines" fragment from the frieze on the east side of the Parthenon
- The Erechtheion
- Caryatid and column from the Erechtheion
- Temple of Athena Nike on the Athenian Acropolis
- Victory (Nike) Adjusting Her Sandal, Temple of Athena Nike (Acropolis)
- Victory (Nike) Adjusting her Sandal
- Grave Stele of Hegeso
- Grave Stele of Hegeso
Caryatid (South Porch) and Ionic Column (North Porch), Erechtheion on the Acropolis, Athens, marble, 421-407 B.C.E., Classical Period (British Museum, London); Mnesicles may have been the architect. Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.
Want to join the conversation?
- what do they mean by 400 c.e.? Do they mean b.c.?(2 votes)
- No. B.C. means Before Christ and A.D. means Anno Domini, which is the Year of our Lord in Latin. To not offend anyone, they made C.E. which means Common Era and B.C.E which means Before the Common Era.(13 votes)
- you mention in several videos that stone and marble sculpture in the ancient era was often painted. Were columns (ionic, doric, caryatids) also painted? if so, any sense of the color schemes ?(4 votes)
- From the author:Some archaeologists now think yes, even some elements of ancient Greek architecture may have been painted. This is a fun little article: http://harvardmagazine.com/2007/11/dazzlers-html(5 votes)
- I love all of this. It is so symblomatic though. Could someone enlighten me on what exactly were the artists/architects were thinking when they were creating these works? I mean wouldn't be wonderful to watch a guy carve this out! And what did they do when they finished their work? Did they high five eachother, have a party, or were off to another job?(3 votes)
- I think this is a great question! I think most great artists focus intently on the art, almost to an unnatural degree, The Zone. The world class athlete doesn't think about the dry cleaning as the ball approaches. I think the stone carver looks not at the chisel as he strikes, but wordlessly at the middle of the middle of the chisel. I believe it is important to think about humans working in the human workspace, the marble chips uncomfortable underfoot, blowing the stone dust out of the nose. I think there was much high-fiving and rounds of wine bought on completion! Thank you for your humanizing question, you make the sublime more real for me.(2 votes)
- where did her lower arms go? also she's missing part of her nose.(1 vote)
- They've been broken off over the thousands of years of their existence, either by natural wear-and-tear, bombings, smashings (yes many other civilizations purposely smashed these statues), or even weather pollution, such as acidic rain.(5 votes)
- Why do you think the caryatids are female figures? Do they represent different Greek goddesses, or are they representations of the idealized human female form? They look very strong, and they obviously are strong enough to support the structure. Could they also be thought of as protectors of it? At the time they were sculpted, what was the status of women in the Greek culture?(2 votes)
- I believe that the female figures are carved to be a likeness of Athena… I think that they mentioned it in the video THE ERECHTHEION.(1 vote)
- Was there usually one artist/sculpture that created these sculptures, or a bunch of different artist? How long did a sculpture take to make?(1 vote)
- I think that some sculptures were created by more than one artist, such as very large artworks, but most were created by only one. Also, the time to make a sculpture probably depended on its size and detail.(2 votes)
- At1:38, is that an image of the Erechtheion with the original caryatids? Since the caryatids were taken down at some point, did the roof which they supported get taken down too?
It's always so interesting to see how conservators choose to preserve/conserve/reconstruct art and their thought process for doing so.(1 vote)
- 1) In 1800 one of the caryatids and the north column of the east porch together with the overlying section of the entablature were removed by Lord Elgin in order to decorate his Scottish mansion, and were later sold to the British Museum.
2) In 1979, the five original Caryatids were moved to the Old Acropolis Museum and replaced in situ by exact replicas. Scientists were working in 2005 to repair the damage using laser cleaning(1 vote)
- What material would a peplos be made of to create that weight?(1 vote)
- My understanding is that garments were made of linen or wool. I'm guessing because of the fine finish of linen, it was used for more elegant wear?(1 vote)
- Where those caryatids also painted like the Pathenon sculptures? Thank you.(1 vote)
We're in the British Museum, and we're looking at one of the Caryatids from the Erechtheion from the Acropolis in Athens. That's a lot of information. And a Caryatid is a human figure acting as a column. She looks like a column. She does, her drapery falls in what almost looks like the fluting of a column, those vertical ridges. And because she stands in contrapposto with one weight bearing leg, which is the one that looks like a column, and one free leg so that the knee juts forward that drapery is allowed to fall completely free of the body below. This very subtle and very sensitively handled swayed her body, right? The contrapposto is not just in the legs, but even in the hips, which you can't actually see, because of all the cloth, but which were referred to. We have this nice circular form around her hips... Where the peplos just bunches. Right, that tunic that she's wearing, and that pools down around her waist, falling from her breasts in a very graceful way. It's interesting because we're talking about the sway of the body, but by the time you get up to the capital, up to her head, she's straightened out, and she has to be. You know, you can really get a sense of even the specificity, the weight, the thickness of the cloth. You know, the way a peplos worked, it was pinned at the shoulders, but you can really get a sense that this is not a very thin fabric, it's got a certain heaviness to it. Kind of weight to it. It's interesting, if you look at the porch where this came from, there are six Caryatids altogether, four facing forward, and the two on the right oppose the two on the left in terms of the contraposto, I believe with the weight-bearing leg on the outside always to make it feel more stable. This is a sort of sensitivity to... Harmony, balance... Yeah, absolutely. And there's, like, nobility to her that is very much what we've been seeing when we also looked at the Parthenon sculptures again, or in 5th century BC, Greece, the classical era and that sense of ideal perfect beauty, and nobility, and monumentality. But I also find it really interesting, this idea of conflating an architectural element with the human body because that's something that is a very ancient idea, and here it's done in the most, sort of, direct way. Later the Romans will talk about architecture in terms of the human body. Not only in terms of scale, but also in terms of proportion. And here it's taken to the most literal, extreme. And within the same room is the fabulous Ionic column, also from the Erechtheion, which is very graceful, and grows more slender as it rises towards the top, with the lovely Ionic capital, with decorative carving underneath. But having this column here is a really important reminder of the scale of those buildings in the Acropolis, because when you're standing in the Museum you forget... How big these buildings were. ...the scale of these buildings on top of a hill. In Athens, in the way, there's a nice skylight above it, begins to give you a sense of what it's like in natural light to see the stone. And this is, as you said, an Ionic column, which is much more slender, much more graceful column than the sort of heavy Doric, the massiveness that we see in the Parthenon, which is just across the way on the Acropolis. And sometimes, and I think this is a little sexist, but sometimes this order, the Ionic, is referred to as the, kind of, more feminine. Right, more elegant, more graceful, more decorative. And, of course, the female figures are replacing the actual columns, so this is kind of the synthesis of those two. And the lovely fluting that makes this wonderful play of light and dark across the column. Fluting and, unlike the Doric, there's a base. The column doesn't rise directly out of the stylobate. There's this sort of footing, and of course that beautiful scrolled capital.