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1. What purposes do permits serve on a biodiversity expedition?

 

Answer: A complete explanation would mention that permits are legal documents and are a necessary component of expeditions these days. They serve many purposes. First, and most importantly, permits allow the country and local people that are host to the biodiversity to have a say in what can and cannot be collected, what happens to the specimens after they are collected, and to play a role in the research. Permits are also an effective way to make sure that collecting is done in a sustainable way. In the past, a frenzy for collecting rare and unusual things contributed to the extinction of species such as the great auk.

 

 

 

2. Give two examples of how advances in technology have led to further biodiversity discoveries.

 

Answer: There are many different examples that could be listed; here are a few of them: some technology such as SCUBA gear, airplanes, icebreaker ships, submersible vehicles, and hot air balloons allows scientists to get to new places to look for life. Some technology such as GIS and GPS allows scientists to accurately pinpoint where they are with geographic coordinates, and other technology allows cameras and smart phones to use GIS to tag or label every photo taken. Some technology such as liquid nitrogen allows specimens to be preserved in new ways. Other technology such as computers allows scientists to store vast amounts of data they collect in the field as well as share information over the Internet, another great advancement in technology. Digital cameras and a variety of microscopes allow scientists to see and record specimens in new, more precise ways, and all of the molecular technology allows scientists to study organisms at the genetic level. Technology has also contributed to the ability of scientists to study organisms and habitats remotely via drones, satellites and other remote sensing devices.

 

 

 

3. What is meant by “citizen science” and why is it helpful to scientists?

 

Answer: A complete explanation would mention that citizen science refers to having interested members of the public help collect data for scientists. No scientific degrees are required to be a citizen scientist – just an interest and a willingness to follow the stated protocols. Citizen science is extremely helpful to scientists because it gives them more data. There are not enough scientists in the world to address all the important research questions, and scientists cannot work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week all of their lives. Having additional eyes and ears making observations, monitoring an area, taking photographs, or analyzing videos are all ways that citizen scientists can collect data and help scientists with their research.