If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources for Khan Academy.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Ancient art and civilizations

Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker of Smarthistory together with leading art historians, and our museum partners have created hundreds of short engaging conversational videos and articles, making Khan Academy one of the most accessible and extensive resources for the study of the history of art.
Community Questions
A thumbnail for: Ancient Near East

Ancient Near East

Was writing invented to record poetry or great literature? Nope. Writing was invented to help keep track of beer and other goods and services. The ancient Sumerians were nothing if not practical. Ancient Near Eastern cultures established the first cities and large scale architecture. From the gates of the city of ancient Babylon, to the ancient code of laws instituted by King Hammurabi, the Ancient Near East is distant but also remarkably familiar.
A thumbnail for: Judaism and art

Judaism and art

Judaism is a monotheistic religion that emerged with the Israelites in the eastern Mediterranean (southern Levant) within the context of the Mesopotamian river valley civilizations. The Israelites were but one nomadic tribe from the area, so named because they considered themselves to be the descendants of Jacob, who changed his name to Israel.
A thumbnail for: Egyptian art and culture

Egyptian art and culture

Woody Allen famously said, “I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. I want to achieve it through not dying.” The ancient Egyptians on the other hand, confronted death head on. In fact, the art of the ancient Egyptians was (for the most part) never meant to be seen by the living—it was meant to benefit the dead in the afterlife. Throughout human history, art has been recognized for its ability to outlive us and has been used as a receptacle for our fears and hopes about our own mortality.
A thumbnail for: Aegean art

Aegean art

Excavations led by teams of archaeologists in the nineteenth century hoped to find evidence for places and people in Homer's epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. They may not have found what they sought, but along the way, they made remarkable discoveries. This tutorial covers the art of the Cycladic Islands, and the Island of Crete (Minoan), and of Mainland Greece (Mycenaean).
A thumbnail for: Greek art

Greek art

The ancient Greeks kept busy. They produced painting and sculpture that was copied by the ancient Romans, by Renaissance and Baroque masters, and by the royal academies up until the early 20th century. We still copy ancient Greek architecture, refer to their philosophy, use their geometry, perform their theatre, hold olympic games, and redefine their democracy.
A thumbnail for: Nabataean

Nabataean

There is only one true way to experience Petra, the greatest city of the Nabataeans, a people who occupied the area from Sinai and Negev to northern Arabia in the west and as far north as southern Syria. On foot or mounted on a camel, one should leave the modern village of Wadi Musa in modern-day Jordan and enter the Siq, a narrow, curving canyon, that traders, explorers and travelers have been walking through since time immemorial.
A thumbnail for: Etruscan

Etruscan

Before the small village of Rome became “Rome” with a capital R (to paraphrase D.H. Lawrence), a brilliant civilization once controlled much peninsula we now call Italy. This was the Etruscan civilization, a vanished culture whose achievements set the stage not only for the development of ancient Roman art and culture but for the Italian Renaissance as well.
A thumbnail for: Roman

Roman

The Romans weren’t very original (they borrowed the Greek’s and Egyptian’s gods, architecture, etc.), but they sure knew the political value of art and they were brilliant engineers and administrators. This tutorial traces Roman art and architecture from the Republic through the collapse of the Empire and the rise Christianity. Fly over a reconstruction of the ancient city of Rome. Understand how the Colosseum was built to appease a population angry at the excesses of the former Emperor Nero, and uncover the secret initiation rites buried by the ash of Mount Vesuvius.
A thumbnail for: Asia

Asia

Asia is both huge and diverse. Explore Hinduism's principal deities, Buddhism's most sacred shrines and recently uncovered treasures from ancient Afghanistan.
Greek art
The ancient Greeks kept busy. They produced painting and sculpture that was copied by the ancient Romans, by Renaissance and Baroque masters, and by the royal academies up until the early 20th century. We still copy ancient Greek architecture, refer to their philosophy, use their geometry, perform their theatre, hold olympic games, and redefine their democracy.
All content in “Greek art”

Daedalic and Archaic

This tutorial traces the representation of the human body in monumental Greek sculpture from the earliest Egyptian influence to the increasing naturalism that lays the foundation for the Classical style.

Early classical

The Early Classical style describes the trends in Greek sculpture between c. 490 and 450 B.C.E. Artistically this stylistic phase represents a transition from the rather austere and static Archaic style of the sixth century B.C.E. to the more idealized Classical style.

Classical

By around 500 B.C.E. ‘rule by the people,’ or democracy, had emerged in the city of Athens. Following the defeat of a Persian invasion in 480-479 B.C.E., mainland Greece and Athens in particular entered into a golden age. In drama and philosophy, literature, art and architecture Athens was second to none. The city’s empire stretched from the western Mediterranean to the Black Sea, creating enormous wealth. This paid for one of the biggest public building projects ever seen in Greece, which included the Parthenon.

Late classical (4th century)

The late Classical style during the early 4th century was a time of experimentation and transition away from the strict canonical ideals of the high Classical moment.

Hellenistic

Alexander the Great died in 323 B.C.E. leaving a vast empire to his generals, the Diadochi (successors). The Diadochi divided Alexander's empire amongst themselves—the Hellenistic dynasties of the Seleucids in the Near East, the Ptolemies in Egypt, the Antigonids in Macedonia, and the wealthy Attalid kings of Pergamon who ruled most of western Asia Minor. Greek culture flourished across an enormous area, but at the same time, these "Hellenized" peoples infused Greek art with a drama and breadth beyond anything the Greeks had previously produced.